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ITIL outlines tactics and practices for productive, low in cost and business-centric IT carrier administration...
youngsters numerous paradigms exist, the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) has emerged as some of the premier-commonly used and commonly practiced methods for IT provider management (ITSM). ITIL service management contains an established set of approaches, methods and initiatives that support IT groups convey and manage computing capabilities to the company. ITIL publications, below Crown Copyright, kind the groundwork for foreign general ISO/IEC 20000.
Following ITIL techniques and approaches permits a company to shape a knowledge middle that enhances company techniques. focused information core investments add price to the enterprise by using creating a foundation for deliberate IT activities, ensuring compliance and performing with measurable, ongoing development.
ITIL doesn't aspect certain records core technologies or focus on deploying or managing certain technologies. it is enterprise- and expertise-agnostic, so it addresses the widest feasible latitude of business sizes and product choices. for instance, ITIL discusses outsourcing to service suppliers and offers a method to evaluate the economic implications of outsourcing, but does not dictate the way to engage with selected outsourcing providers.ITIL 2011 provider management
each and every ITIL revision goals to increase the logical organization and company relevance of the service administration strategy.
The ITIL 2011 edition covers 26 procedures spread throughout five principle publications that talk about method, design, transition, operation and growth.
The service method booklet tackles a market-driven method to providing IT features. It describes various management methods that assist groups make the top-quality outsourcing decisions with the top-rated monetary benefits.
The carrier Design book shows how planned IT capabilities affect the bigger enterprise. It covers IT features design practices and technology carrier beginning, as well as provider management tools, ITIL service help approaches, and the provide chain supporting the provider. certain administration approaches encompass provider-level, availability, ability and protection management.
The provider Transition booklet explains processes that translate company needs into specific IT functions. ITIL service management dictates that you just method these translations as initiatives, and the service Transition ebook covers a way to control alterations to the enterprise atmosphere. Transitions include change administration, asset and configuration administration, software unlock or deployment management, provider checking out and so forth.
The carrier Operation publication gives a collection of practices to support businesses bring the necessary provider degrees to personnel, partners and shoppers -- the part of the ITIL lifecycle where IT basically delivers value. ITIL provider practitioners learn how to tackle hobbies and incidents, fulfill requests, manipulate problems and confirm id security.
The persistent carrier improvement book helps corporations identify the place provider alterations are vital and modify features to altering enterprise wants on an ongoing foundation -- all while conserving manage and measuring the results of their changes. This involves defining dimension aspects and then gathering, processing and inspecting the facts. When development is needed, the IT crew implements alterations, evaluates the effect and, from that data, formulates more changes. it be an ongoing manner.practicing and certification for ITIL
ITIL practitioners require formal certification, which is managed via the ITIL Certification management Board and administered commercially via the APM community constrained. exam suppliers encompass Peoplecert, Pearson VUE, Prometric and many others.
ITIL 2007 and 2011 types use four stages of certification, in keeping with credit: basis, Intermediate, skilled and master. A candidate that passes the fundamental exam receives a basis certification and two credit.
Candidates looking for Intermediate ITIL certification must pursue a range of lifecycle modules (three credits every) or means modules (four credit each) to reach the sixteen credit.
expert-stage ITIL certification requires not less than 22 credits from quite a few Intermediate modules, including an extra five credits earned from a finished "Managing throughout the Lifecycle" exam.
A master-level ITIL certification is greater evaluation-based, requiring professional ITIL certification and as a minimum five years of journey in a high-level ITSM position.
a lot of training companies present a mixture of written, online, reside lecture room and different materials to prepare for the ITIL exam. The amount of time and effort that goes into an ITIL certification varies dramatically reckoning on the type of gaining knowledge of automobiles and the very own attention committed to the effort.
The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a library of volumes describing a framework of most appropriate practices for offering IT features. ITIL has passed through a few revisions in its history and at present contains 5 books, every covering a number of procedures and tiers of the IT service lifecycle. ITIL’s systematic approach to IT carrier management can aid groups manage risk, give a boost to customer members of the family, set up within your budget practices, and construct a sturdy IT atmosphere that enables for increase, scale and alter.
Developed by way of the British government's critical desktop and Telecommunications agency (CCTA) all the way through the Nineteen Eighties, the ITIL first consisted of greater than 30 books, developed and launched over time, that codified foremost practices in counsel expertise amassed from many sources (together with companies' foremost practices) everywhere. IBM, as an instance, says that its 4-extent sequence on systems-management concepts, A administration device for assistance systems, universal as the Yellow Books, provided a must-have enter into the normal ITIL books.
In April 2001, CCTA, along with a number of different businesses, were rolled into the office of government Commerce (OGC), which is now regular as the cabinet office. The OGC adopted the challenge as a part of its mission to work with the U.okay. public sector as a catalyst to achieve effectivity, value for funds in industrial actions, and superior success in the birth of courses and tasks.
The intention wasn't to create a proprietary product that may be commercialized; rather, it turned into to acquire ultimate practices that may aid with what the executive recognized changed into an expanding dependence in the govt on IT combined with a painful lack of common approaches that have been increasing fees and enabling errors to perpetuate. It instantly grew to become obvious that distributing these finest practices would income each public and personal-sector organizations.
through the years, ITIL's credibility and utility grew to be recognized, and in 2005 its practices contributed to and aligned with the ISO/IEC 20000 carrier management average, the first foreign common for IT provider management; it's in keeping with British typical BS15000.
considering that 2013, ITIL is owned by using Axelos — a joint venture between the cupboard workplace and Capita. Axelos offers businesses the license to make use of the ITIL framework, whereas managing updates and procedure adjustments. despite the fact, to use ITIL internally, organizations don't have a license. ITIL v3 became launched in 2011, below the cupboard workplace, bringing updates to the 2007 version published under OGC.
In 2018, Axelos announced ITIL 4 – an incredible overhaul to the entire framework and the largest trade in view that ITIL v3 was posted in 2007. ITIL 4, which all started rolling out in Q1 of 2019, presents a extra agile, bendy and customizable edition of ITIL this is up-to-date for modern agencies. The latest edition encourages much less siloes, extra collaboration, verbal exchange throughout the complete business and integrating agile and DevOps into ITSM suggestions.What's in the ITIL?
The ITIL has undergone a few revisions in its historical past. The fashioned 30 books of the ITIL had been first condensed in 2000 (when ITIL V2 was launched) to seven books, each wrapped around an aspect of IT administration. Later, the ITIL Refresh challenge in 2007 consolidated the ITIL to five volumes which includes 26 procedure and services – here is spoke of as the ITIL 2007 edition. In 2011, an additional update — dubbed ITIL 2011 — became published beneath the cupboard workplace. The 5 volumes remained, and ITIL 2007 and ITIL 2011 remained similar.
ITIL four, which became released in 2019, maintains the identical focus on automating methods, improving service administration and integrating the IT department into the enterprise. although, it also updates the framework to accommodate and reply to contemporary know-how, tools and utility. considering ITIL’s remaining replace, the IT branch has grown to become critical to every company and the brand new framework accommodates this by using being more agile, bendy and collaborative.
ITIL 4 contains nine guiding ideas that were adopted from probably the most recent ITIL Practitioner examination, which covers organizational exchange administration, conversation and size and metrics. These principles consist of:
The most up-to-date edition of ITIL makes a speciality of company lifestyle and integrating IT into the basic business constitution. It encourages collaboration between IT and different departments, specifically as different enterprise gadgets more and more rely on expertise to get work achieved. ITIL 4 additionally emphasizes customer comments, due to the fact that it’s less complicated than ever for companies to have in mind their public perception, customer delight and dissatisfaction.
For greater assistance on the advantages of the latest version of ITIL, see “ITIL 4: ITSM gets agile.”How do I put ITIL into observe?
ITIL is a group of e-books, but purely going on a reading binge may not increase your IT operations. First, you ought to wrap your mind around the concepts after which get staff buy-in. Getting some IT personnel to adopt new processes may also be like herding cats, but there are equipment that can help.
together with the ITIL comes a whole suite of consulting, practicing and certification services. From the early 1990s, certifications had been administered with the aid of two independent our bodies: EXIN and ISEB, reckoning on your region. the two bodies shaped an alliance on the end of 2006 to additional IT service administration.
seeing that 2014, Axelos is the proprietor of the ITIL personnel certification and tests are administered via approved practicing corporations (ATOs). Accreditations are administered by Strategic Examination Institutes (EIs). EIs deserve to be authorised directly via Axelos with the intention to present accreditation to ATOs.
earlier than imposing ITIL at your corporations, there are several questions be sure to answer, corresponding to what problems your company is making an attempt to solve and what's your route to continual carrier improvement.
For a deeper analyze inserting ITIL into apply, see "7 questions to ask before imposing ITIL" and "a way to get began with ITIL."what's ITIL certification and is it price it?
The ITIL v3 certification scheme prior to now consisted of five tiers: foundation, Practitioner, Intermediate, knowledgeable and grasp. each degree required a far better depth of competencies and figuring out of ITIL. The certification scheme under ITIL four has been streamlined to encompass the ITIL foundation and the ITIL master exams. The ITIL foundation exam has two paths, ITIL Managing skilled (MP) or ITIL Strategic leader (SL), which every have their own modules and tests.
The ITIL Managing skilled (MP) exam is designed for IT practitioners who're concerned with know-how and digital groups throughout the company, not simply within the IT department. This route will train experts every little thing they should know about operating a hit IT initiatives, groups and workflows.
Modules consist of:
The ITIL Strategic leader (SL) exam is designed for people that contend with “all digitally enabled functions,” and never just those who fall below IT operations. This route focuses on how expertise directs enterprise approach and how IT performs into that.
both paths can cause the ITIL master exam, which is the optimum degree of certification which you can obtain with ITIL four.
For these already in the core of working against a ITIL v3 certifications, credit will transfer over to the new certifications. Axelos recommends that all ITIL certification candidates proceed the route towards ITIL master.
For in-depth evaluation of ITIL certification, see "What ITIL certifications mean to your IT administration practices."How can ITIL enhance my enterprise's enterprise efficiency?
A well-run IT company that manages possibility and keeps the infrastructure humming no longer most effective saves funds, nonetheless it also permits the enterprise people to do their jobs greater with ease. for instance, brokerage company Pershing reduced its incident response time by means of 50 percent within the first 12 months after restructuring its service desk based on ITIL instructions, enabling users with issues to get again to work an awful lot extra instantly.
ITIL provides a scientific and skilled strategy to the administration of IT service provision, and presents here merits:
according to Axelos, ITIL can also help companies increase features by means of:
For a deeper look at the way to get probably the most from ITIL, see "5 steps to successful ITIL adoption."what's going to ITIL charge?
Getting all started contains the buy of the ITIL both as hardcopy, PDF, ePub or via a web subscription directly from Axelos. Then there may be the can charge of training, which fluctuates every year. The route leading to the preliminary basis certificates usually runs for two days, and courses leading to higher certifications can be a week or extra.
Add to that the inevitable can charge of re-engineering some methods to conform to ITIL guidelines, and adjustment of aid desk or other application to catch the counsel you want for tracking and generating metrics.
there is, incidentally, no such aspect as "ITIL-compliant" application; the ITIL is a framework, now not a standard. Some aid desk and administration software has been engineered with ITIL practices in mind, although, and so will lend themselves improved to groups working within the framework.
Examples of application and services designed with ITIL and ITSM in intellect include:
ITIL is not a "venture"; or not it's an ongoing adventure to enrich IT service administration. most useful practices need to be baked into every thing, and that they have to evolve because the business evolves. With IT staff purchase-in, alterations can start once team of workers are educated, and some results should still be apparent within weeks or months. method adjustments do take time, however, as entrenched dangerous practices are rooted out and modified (and, potentially, personnel adjustments happen), however many organizations have mentioned gigantic discount rates after their first 12 months.
To get a better conception of what it will take to adopt and put in force ITIL, which you can flick through case reviews on the Axelos site. recent case stories consist of corporations like Sony and Disney — two companies with big IT operations to control.What rate reductions can i are expecting?
organisations and public sector agencies which have successfully implemented ITIL top-rated practices document large savings.
as an instance, in its benefits of ITIL paper, crimson Elephant reports that Procter and Gamble saved about $500 million over 4 years through decreasing aid desk calls and improving working methods. Nationwide assurance executed a forty % discount in device outages and estimates a $4.three million ROI over three years, and Capital One reduced its "business crucial" incidents by way of ninety two p.c over two years. After three years of ITIL implementation, woodland items business MeadWestvaco claimed to have eliminated more than $100,000 annually in IT protection contracts and identified a 10 p.c profit in operational steadiness due to ITIL.
without purchase-in and cooperation from IT team of workers, although, any implementation is certain to fail. Bringing most efficient practices into a firm is as a great deal a PR job because it is a technical exercise.
other criticisms encompass the undeniable fact that it’s inconceivable to plot for every failure, event or incident so it’s no longer an exact science. basically, you received’t understand the accurate ROI on ITIL except you put in force it inside your company and use it conveniently. finally, due to the fact that ITIL is a framework, it can handiest be as a success as company buy-in allows for. Embracing certifications, training and investing within the shift will support enhance the probabilities of success and rate reductions.
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The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a library of volumes describing a framework of best practices for delivering IT services. ITIL has gone through several revisions in its history and currently comprises five books, each covering various processes and stages of the IT service lifecycle. ITIL’s systematic approach to IT service management can help businesses manage risk, strengthen customer relations, establish cost-effective practices, and build a stable IT environment that allows for growth, scale and change.
Developed by the British government's Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) during the 1980s, the ITIL first consisted of more than 30 books, developed and released over time, that codified best practices in information technology accumulated from many sources (including vendors' best practices) around the world. IBM, for example, says that its four-volume series on systems-management concepts, A Management System for Information Systems, known as the Yellow Books, provided vital input into the original ITIL books.
In April 2001, CCTA, along with several other agencies, were rolled into the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), which is now known as the Cabinet Office. The OGC adopted the project as part of its mission to work with the U.K. public sector as a catalyst to achieve efficiency, value for money in commercial activities, and improved success in the delivery of programs and projects.
The goal wasn't to create a proprietary product that could be commercialized; rather, it was to gather best practices that could assist with what the government recognized was an increasing dependence within the government on IT combined with a painful lack of standard procedures that were increasing costs and allowing errors to perpetuate. It quickly became apparent that distributing these best practices would profit both public and private-sector organizations.
Over the years, ITIL's credibility and utility became recognized, and in 2005 its practices contributed to and aligned with the ISO/IEC 20000 Service Management standard, the first international standard for IT service management; it is based on British standard BS15000.
Since 2013, ITIL is owned by Axelos — a joint venture between the Cabinet Office and Capita. Axelos gives businesses the license to use the ITIL framework, while managing updates and process changes. However, to use ITIL internally, organizations do not need a license. ITIL v3 was released in 2011, under the Cabinet Office, bringing updates to the 2007 version published under OGC.
In 2018, Axelos announced ITIL 4 – a major overhaul to the entire framework and the biggest change since ITIL v3 was published in 2007. ITIL 4, which started rolling out in Q1 of 2019, offers a more agile, flexible and customizable version of ITIL that is updated for modern businesses. The latest version encourages less siloes, more collaboration, communication across the entire business and integrating agile and DevOps into ITSM strategies.What's in the ITIL?
The ITIL has gone through several revisions in its history. The original 30 books of the ITIL were first condensed in 2000 (when ITIL V2 was launched) to seven books, each wrapped around a facet of IT management. Later, the ITIL Refresh Project in 2007 consolidated the ITIL to five volumes consisting of 26 process and functions – this is referred to as the ITIL 2007 edition. In 2011, another update — dubbed ITIL 2011 — was published under the Cabinet Office. The five volumes remained, and ITIL 2007 and ITIL 2011 remained similar.
ITIL 4, which was released in 2019, maintains the same focus on automating processes, improving service management and integrating the IT department into the business. However, it also updates the framework to accommodate and answer to modern technology, tools and software. Since ITIL’s last update, the IT department has grown to become integral to every business and the new framework accommodates this by being more agile, flexible and collaborative.
ITIL 4 contains nine guiding principles that were adopted from the most recent ITIL Practitioner Exam, which covers organizational change management, communication and measurement and metrics. These principles include:
The newest version of ITIL focuses on company culture and integrating IT into the overall business structure. It encourages collaboration between IT and other departments, especially as other business units increasingly rely on technology to get work done. ITIL 4 also emphasizes customer feedback, since it’s easier than ever for businesses to understand their public perception, customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
For more information on the benefits of the latest version of ITIL, see “ITIL 4: ITSM gets agile.”How do I put ITIL into practice?
ITIL is a collection of e-books, but merely going on a reading binge won't improve your IT operations. First, you have to wrap your brain around the concepts and then get staff buy-in. Getting some IT personnel to adopt new procedures can be like herding cats, but there are tools that can help.
Along with the ITIL comes a whole suite of consulting, training and certification services. From the early 1990s, certifications were administered by two independent bodies: EXIN and ISEB, depending on your location. The two bodies formed an alliance at the end of 2006 to further IT service management.
Since 2014, Axelos is the owner of the ITIL personnel certification and exams are administered by Accredited Training Organizations (ATOs). Accreditations are administered by Strategic Examination Institutes (EIs). EIs need to be accredited directly by Axelos in order to offer accreditation to ATOs.
Before implementing ITIL at your organizations, there are several questions you should answer, such as what problems your organization is trying to solve and what is your route to continual service improvement.
For a deeper look at putting ITIL into practice, see "7 questions to ask before implementing ITIL" and "How to get started with ITIL."What is ITIL certification and is it worth it?
The ITIL v3 certification scheme previously consisted of five levels: Foundation, Practitioner, Intermediate, Expert and Master. Each level required a stronger depth of knowledge and understanding of ITIL. The certification scheme under ITIL 4 has been streamlined to include the ITIL Foundation and the ITIL Master exams. The ITIL Foundation exam has two paths, ITIL Managing Professional (MP) or ITIL Strategic Leader (SL), which each have their own modules and exams.
The ITIL Managing Professional (MP) exam is designed for IT practitioners who are involved with technology and digital teams throughout the organization, not just in the IT department. This path will teach professionals everything they need to know about running successful IT projects, teams and workflows.
The ITIL Strategic Leader (SL) exam is designed for those who deal with “all digitally enabled services,” and not just those that fall under IT operations. This path focuses on how technology directs business strategy and how IT plays into that.
Both paths can lead to the ITIL Master exam, which is the highest level of certification you can achieve with ITIL 4.
For those already in the middle of working towards a ITIL v3 certifications, credits will transfer over to the new certifications. Axelos recommends that all ITIL certification candidates continue the path towards ITIL master.
For in-depth analysis of ITIL certification, see "What ITIL certifications mean to your IT management practices."How can ITIL improve my company's business performance?
A well-run IT organization that manages risk and keeps the infrastructure humming not only saves money, but it also allows the business people to do their jobs more effectively. For example, brokerage firm Pershing reduced its incident response time by 50 percent in the first year after restructuring its service desk according to ITIL guidelines, allowing users with problems to get back to work much more quickly.
ITIL provides a systematic and professional approach to the management of IT service provision, and offers the following benefits:
According to Axelos, ITIL can also help businesses improve services by:
For a deeper look at how to get the most from ITIL, see "5 steps to successful ITIL adoption."What will ITIL cost?
Getting started involves the purchase of the ITIL either as hardcopy, PDF, ePub or through an online subscription directly from Axelos. Then there's the cost of training, which fluctuates each year. The course leading to the initial Foundation Certificate typically runs for two days, and courses leading to higher certifications can be a week or more.
Add to that the inevitable cost of re-engineering some processes to comply with ITIL guidelines, and adjustment of help desk or other software to capture the information you need for tracking and generating metrics.
There is, by the way, no such thing as "ITIL-compliant" software; the ITIL is a framework, not a standard. Some help desk and management software has been engineered with ITIL practices in mind, however, and so will lend themselves better to teams working within the framework.
Examples of software and services designed with ITIL and ITSM in mind include:
ITIL is not a "project"; it's an ongoing journey to improve IT service management. Best practices have to be baked into everything, and they have to evolve as the enterprise evolves. With IT staff buy-in, changes can begin once staff are trained, and some results should be apparent within weeks or months. Process changes do take time, however, as entrenched bad practices are rooted out and modified (and, potentially, staff changes occur), but many companies have reported substantial savings after their first year.
To get a better idea of what it will take to adopt and implement ITIL, you can browse through case studies on the Axelos website. Recent case studies include companies like Sony and Disney — two companies with massive IT operations to manage.What savings can I expect?
Corporations and public sector organizations that have successfully implemented ITIL best practices report huge savings.
For example, in its Benefits of ITIL paper, Pink Elephant reports that Procter and Gamble saved about $500 million over four years by reducing help desk calls and improving operating procedures. Nationwide Insurance achieved a 40 percent reduction in system outages and estimates a $4.3 million ROI over three years, and Capital One reduced its "business critical" incidents by 92 percent over two years. After three years of ITIL implementation, forest products company MeadWestvaco claimed to have eliminated more than $100,000 annually in IT maintenance contracts and recognized a 10 percent gain in operational stability thanks to ITIL.
Without buy-in and cooperation from IT staff, however, any implementation is bound to fail. Bringing best practices into an organization is as much a PR job as it is a technical exercise.
Other criticisms include the fact that it’s impossible to plan for every failure, event or incident so it’s not an exact science. In reality, you won’t know the exact ROI on ITIL until you implement it within your organization and use it effectively. Ultimately, since ITIL is a framework, it can only be as successful as corporate buy-in allows. Embracing certifications, training and investing in the shift will help increase the chances of success and savings.
While some IT professionals encounter this ITIL thing on their first day in a new job, some others have reached the role of Senior Software Engineer at the ripe age of 26 before being exposed to it. What is it and why would anyone working in a startup care about a 30-year-old IT framework? The article sheds some light on this 250,000-exams-a-year phenomenon.
Different contexts require different approaches — if there is one thing that the Cynefin framework has taught us, then this is it.
The IT industry has spent a lot of effort and so much, oh so much money on optimization and standardization initiatives, often leading to business-halting rigidity. Yes, stability can be nice and is sometimes even required, but there are many situations where fewer controls are required to enable innovation, and more flexibility is required for decision-making.
Where the “old world” of IT focused on costs, standardization, and stability, the “new world” focuses on speed, resilience, and value delivery. No, they did not “do it wrong” back in the day, but what is possible has changed. The IT Service Management (ITSM) industry was born in the old world, yet some of the concepts there seem to be even more relevant today than they were a few decades ago — especially the (renewed) focus on customer value.Startup challenges
As startups grow and scale, they start worrying about things like paying customers, the stability of core operations, repeatable processes, and getting rid of that sheen of red on their balance sheets. Because some of these concerns might hit them by surprise, there’s often a sense of urgency in addressing them. One option would be to invent solutions from scratch, but in a growing company, not everything needs to be artisanal anymore. The other option would be to check what others have done, learn from it, and see how to adopt the learnings to their context, and continuously improve.
The IT industry has seen some of the aforementioned challenges before and has tried to address them in various ways, some more successful than others. As startups labour on finding the best ways of working for their context, familiarizing themselves with “prior art” could be useful — not to blindly copy solutions, but to learn about what worked or not, and why. Learning what should not be done is as useful as finding ideas to try out.
I believe that in ITIL, the best-known framework for ITSM, there are indeed some (hidden) nuggets of wisdom relevant for startups. The following is a mix of history, context-setting, development-tracking, and practice-mapping to create a link between ITIL and today’s world of startups. I will spend only a few paragraphs on pure history at the beginning — I think it is important for understanding the rest. Bear with me, please.The history
ITIL is an IT Service Management framework that consists of publications, qualifications, a membership scheme, and accompanying services. ITIL is old, like really old — the first version was released in 1989, which means it turns 30 this year. At the same time, it’s new, like v_not_even_released_yet new — the latest edition of ITIL, called ITIL 4, is scheduled to be published in February 2019.
Over time, the number of publications one has to read to get a full picture of what the framework is all about has been shrinking. The first version had the guidance distributed across more than 30 loosely coupled books which shrank down to 20+ mostly-ignored-except-for-two books for v2, and five only-trainers-have-read books for v3 / 2011. ITIL 4 comes with one book, at least initially, with plans for several more in the coming years. We shall see.
ITIL originated in the UK, so we can say it’s a European thing — for the time being, at least. Some countries have embraced it fully —e.g. the Netherlands, where to-be IT professionals get their ITIL certificates already bundled with their birth ones, or the Scandinavian countries with hourly ITIL Foundation courses. Former colonies, on the other hand, do sometimes have a strong “not invented here” vibe going on, which might explain why ITIL is relatively more widespread in Europe than in the US.
Those who have even heard about ITIL without the experience of working for years in Enterprise IT often associate it with “tickets” or the ever-wonderful combination of lengthy forms and weekly meetings commonly known as the “CAB”, or Change mistakenly-used-as-Approval Board. For some with just startup experience, the only exposure to ITIL might be the bedtime stories presented at DevOps conferences.Something sounds familiar
It is important to remember that the need for ITIL came from a very different IT setup compared to that of today’s startups. IT had a supporting, not central role in the organizations’ daily operations and many IT projects were about digitalizing existing processes, rather than true innovation.
Funnily enough, many organizations are still doing this today — or, in some cases, just starting to — under the name of Digital Transformation. But hey, the future is most definitely not evenly distributed.
IT was there to support business processes, to make them faster or cheaper or more mature or black-belt-worthy, whatever the sales pitch from the vendor or consultancy was, and while sometimes it seemed to work rather well, in many other cases, lots of new challenges emerged, sometimes with devastating consequences. Some of the practices that seemed to be working well were collected and documented, and this later came to be known as ITIL. I believe those more familiar with the DevOps world can relate.
The name “ITIL” used to stand for “IT Infrastructure Library”. Yeah — that’s where the focus was at that time. Nowadays it is all so completely different, with all the discussions about cloud computing and containers and serverless and … but I digress, apologies.The need for not speed
Over time, the focus in Enterprises shifted away from the novelty aspects of managing IT (infrastructure) to understanding the rationale of spending even a dime to fund the growing budgets of IT departments. The initial questions of ‘What can IT do for us?’ and ‘How can we make it work?’ were replaced with ‘We need IT to do more, for less!’ and ‘Make sure it doesn’t break!’ edicts. The cute IT pony had turned into an Enterprise draft horse.
This also brought a stronger specialization into IT — from different specialists (e.g. infrastructure, software development, databases, operations) working together in one team to being split into specialist teams, with all the usual communication and alignment challenges one can expect to see in the Enterprise. In other words, we moved away from DevOps.
The ITIL guidance evolved accordingly. There now was more talk about costs (including outsourcing) and stability (including change controls), less talk about technical practices (including for software development and testing), and a few largely-ignored inklings of ideas about business value.The disconnect
One of the concepts that was strongly advocated in the ITIL guidance was the service provider / customer collaboration view, which over time in real life morphed into “The Business” telling to “IT” what they want in the form of requirements, and “IT” responding to that with new applications that they now called “services” because of their recent ITIL “implementation”.
Some of those applications were built in-house, but more and more software coming to the Enterprise was either Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) or developed by partners under the watchful eye of the PMO. The wall between Development and Operations that was heightened with specialization became ever higher with outsourcing, and organizations encountered various interesting situations where e.g. the cost of changes to the application even before it was released exceeded that of the initially agreed development work. And, well, “The Business” was still rather unhappy when they finally saw what their money had paid for — both the applications and the ever-growing wall of confusion, to be honest.
The problems resulting from the disconnect between various parts of IT that were still in-house became too big to hide, not to mention the growing disconnect between “IT” and “The Business”. Innovative organizations (by the measures of that time, at least) started paying more attention to the end-to-end visibility and collaboration. “IT and Business alignment” in service management was supposed to be replaced with “IT and Business convergence” and such. Ahem.
There is still disagreement even in the ITSM world over whether this model even makes sense, because why would you want to treat your colleagues as customers, rather than partners. My experience tells me that “service” can indeed be a useful concept to use for a value delivery vehicle, as it shifts the focus from the technical aspects to customer objectives and improvement. In some cases, at least — so this is not guaranteed to happen the moment you start claiming to be using service management.Towards a more holistic view
In 2007, ITIL v3 was released. As you will quickly find out even when talking to “the ITIL guys”, v3 is a sensitive topic for more reasons than one, but it did bring in the concept of the end-to-end service lifecycle to replace the loosely coupled and often-siloed-in-reality practices (that ITIL still calls “processes”, although they’re anything but). The 2011 edition of ITIL, released in, well, 2011 partially addressed the challenges of v3, but for some, it was too late to replace the pulled-out hair or hide the grey patches.
In 2014, the ITIL framework was taken over by the newly formed UK-based joint venture called AXELOS. By this time, the DevOps movement was in full swing and agile software development was the norm, not the exception, practicalities and real-world success aside. New ways of working were in conflict with what had become known as “ITIL” in many organizations — slow-moving queues of tickets bouncing back-and-forth between teams, lengthy request forms, rigid procedures, draconian controls, useless meetings, and the general feeling of disconnect and despair.
Some say these problems are symptomatic of ITIL because of its nature. Some disagree. And some are too busy getting work done to take part in social media debates. I have seen too many organizations benefitting from leveraging the guidance in ITIL to believe it’s evil by nature, but I have also seen many organizations struggling with making sense of it and/or avoiding the aforementioned problems. ITIL Practitioner guidance that was released in 2016 was a part of the response to this challenge.Wheels and spokes
The ITIL framework has seen the IT industry go through several shifts, sometimes completely novel, sometimes iterations on what was there before. It is unlikely you’d find copious guidance in the tomes of ITIL on how to innovate or pivot because that was never the focus of the framework. There might be something useful for when you have found your product-market fit, though.
At the same time, I’m not saying that startups can just copy guidance from the pages of ITIL and apply it, verbatim, to their organization. That would be an unwise thing to do for both startups and Enterprises alike. I’m also not saying that the ITIL books are an easy read — at 2000 pages, and with a lot of jargon, they are definitely not.
The next section will introduce some of the concepts covered in ITIL and, in my opinion, also relevant in the context of a scaling startup. I’ve brought these out so that you don’t have to read all the ITIL books or go through the certification program — there is a lot of (free) additional guidance available, and this way you know what to search for if you want to learn more.The useful stuff
Not all of the things described in ITIL have found their way into organizations claiming to have “implemented” ITIL. Also, some of the real-world practices in those organizations often falsely attributed to ITIL ignore all the warnings in the books or go directly against the recommendations.
The main focus areas for ITIL in the real world have been in IT Operations (e.g. incident management), planning (e.g. availability management and capacity management), collaboration-but-actually-reporting (e.g. service level management) and the intersection of IT Operations and Software Development (e.g. change management, release management, etc.). Aspirationally also configuration management (CMDB, anyone?) but the success of this can mostly be measured in fees paid, not results achieved. Some of the key value-enabling areas — such as Continual Service Improvement and Service Design — and the core principles have often not received the attention they deserve or have been completely ignored.
Those more familiar with what they have come to know as ITIL might want to read the following through the ‘ITIL: do as I say, not as I do’ lens because it might not align with their experience of “ITIL in the wild”. Again, not a new approach to those familiar with e.g. “Agile in the wild” and “Agile in books and social media exchanges”.
ITIL uses the concept of “service” to describe a vehicle for customer value delivery, keeping in mind the aspects of expected outcomes, costs, and risks. For any of this to work, the first step with services is to figure out who the customers are and what it is that they (think that they) need.
This links well to current discussions in the software product management domain, where a lot of work effort can be spent on assumed needs of imaginary customers, rather than on data-based customer insights.
Of course, a startup in its early days can be quite unsure about who their customers are or even whether the service they want to provide is of any value to anyone. The customers themselves might not know what their expected outcomes are. Searching for the right product-market fit works differently before there’s a satisfactorily large number of paying customers.
It is important to note that we are talking about outcomes, not outputs here. Any investment remains output-focused (delivering e.g. additional computing power or new functionality), and is, as such, an unjustified expenditure and a potential waste until it has been connected to expected business outcomes. I’m not suggesting that the link should be made after the fact, quite the opposite, but potentially significant savings can be made today by assessing the current investment and initiative portfolio through a quick ‘And what exactly do we want to achieve with this, and why?’ analysis.
Services, architectures, tooling, processes, and procedures — all of it needs to be continually reviewed and improved as appropriate, to ensure the delivery of customer value and the achievement of business outcomes.(Oh, this sounds so textbooky … apologies.)
The trouble is that continual improvement is often addressed as an afterthought, which in terms of “when” means “never, except in PowerPoint”. There seems to be a widely held belief that we should start thinking about continual improvement once everything else has been completed according to the plan and to required standards — because then the “real work” is done and we finally have time for this extra stuff, right?
It’s amazing how we still sometimes think that basing developments and improvements on 5-year plans is a viable approach, given that the events in 1991 should have conclusively shown where it leads. We still seem to think that the world just stands still, waiting for us to hit the 5-year targets. Sure.
Instead, continual improvement should be part of the work. A fundamental part, not a nice-to-have part. Continual improvement should start on day one, not scheduled for after achieving that coveted level 5 maturity.
Hint: most maturity models are context-insensitive and come with high costs and low gains; you might want to reconsider basing your improvements on a maturity assessment unless all highlighted action items are clearly linked to business value. Maturity assessments can be useful in some contexts, but they are often abused and extended beyond their usefulness.
Also, continual improvement is usually best run as a continual activity, not as a project or a program. Think about asking for funding for a program that would immediately start fixing what you delivered earlier that week. ‘Can’t you do it properly the first way around?’, your sponsor might ask. So yeah, don’t do that.
An end-to-end view of value delivery
This could be seen as somewhat aspirational, as the context of ITIL is IT Service Management (ITSM) and in the real world, ITSM rarely has the mandate to manage the whole value stream from ideation to customer value realization. It has kind of worked for internal services (in some organizations) that sit in the domain of the IT Department, but not so well for externally focused and sold services. Usually, there are many teams and decision points before and after the work done by the tech teams.
The concept is cool, though. Remember when the early DevOps community realized — not like Patrick hadn’t painted it red many times — that there was more to the world than Dev and Ops? Things like QA and Security, for instance. So we got things like DevSecOps. The most recent discovery is the usefulness of the budget holders, so now we sometimes talk about BizDevOps. Or BizDevSecQAOps. I’m obviously biased here, but I think the old name “ITSM” is just so much shorter and simpler, isn’t it!
The sad thing is that in the real world, the ITIL “implementations” often ended up creating process-based silos along with the “not my job” attitude. So, instead of collaboration and flow, we got separate ticket queues, conflicting priorities, lack of transparency, and unhappy customers. At the same time, if you look around those organizations, then there’s a high chance you will see many silos across the whole organization, not just in IT. Go figure.
You might have noticed that I use double quotes around “implementation”. This is because no organization should implement ITIL, at least not in the common sense of “implementation” as encountered in the wild. The common approach usually leads to the means becoming the ends, and the business rationale of “implementing X” is described as ‘then we have X’. The best approach to ITIL is to a) figure out if it could be helpful to your organization, b) adopt the service mindset, and c) adapt the guidance to your context and requirements. There is no one right way to adapt ITIL.
Single Point of Contact for support
I believe you are aware that your customers do not care what your organization’s internal structure looks like, how many teams are involved in developing and maintaining the products and services, and which exact module or microservice is the one causing problems if things break.
The customer usually appreciates a single point of contact for any issues or questions or requests they might have, not a list of email addresses for different support teams. It is your job to figure out how to route the work internally while maintaining transparency and capturing the gold-worthy data the customers are providing after you messed something up or when they realized they’d like to give you more money.
There are various models for how to design your support structures but in most cases, it is unproductive to have e.g. your developers answering customer emails or complaints tweets. As much of support as possible should be either automated or enabled by simple self-service. You don’t want to have more tickets — you want the customer to get what they need, as quickly and as simply as possible. And you should probably capture the data about repeating incidents and requests, as this allows you to make relevant improvements to your products and services.
The Guiding Principles
This is a relatively new addition to ITIL and part of the ITIL Practitioner Guidance. The nine Guiding Principles create a kind of net of constraints around service management initiatives — they won’t tell you what to do or how to do it, but they do help you to check whether you’re on the right path. Although they were initially developed to show how some of the underlying key ideas of ITIL link to those in DevOps, Agile, and Lean, I’ve seen these resonate really well with non-ITSM professionals, too.
Here they are, in no particular order (although always ordered like this):
Whatever your idea is, when putting together the action plan and before execution, check whether you have thought about the relevance of all of these principles to what you’re about to do and what you want to achieve.Wrapping up
I decided to limit the scope of this article to some of the higher-level ideas in ITIL, rather than going for the specifics of each of the 26 processes (not processes). Whether you’re thinking about product/service portfolio management or supplier management or event management, there could be information in ITIL that shows what others have been battling with before, and what worked (and didn’t work) for them. This could be useful when you’re trying to find your own ways of working and avoid repeating mistakes and/or reinventing the wheel.
Feel free to get in touch here or on Twitter with any questions or comments.
This app presents concepts, terms and definitions designed to aid communication in IT service management and related disciplines. It supports the terminology used in the various ITIL Foundation, ITIL Advanced, ITIL Master syllabi. This app completes words in ITIL 2011 glossary.
Sidebar(as a list) Feature- Tap a word: Show description- Tap ABC indexes: Jump a section as you want.- Tap a magnifying glass icon: You can search a word.
Description Feature- Show a description with a related word.- Pinch In/Out: Font size change- Long Tap: You can copy, search another dictionary and search internet.
The glossary has been arranged in a single section of definitions ordered alphabetically. Some terms are preferred to other synonymous ones, in which case, the definition of the preferred term appears, with the synonymous ones referring to that. For example structural testing refers to white box testing. For synonyms, the “See” indicator is used. “See also” cross-references are also used. They assist the user to quickly navigate to the right index term.
ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited. Used under permission of AXELOS Limited. All rights reserved
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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