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The IEEE 802 Standard comprises a family of networking standards that cover the physical layer specifications of technologies from Ethernet to wireless. IEEE 802 is subdivided into 22 parts based on distance, frequency, and data rate. Depending upon these aspects, the system operates over a set of typical channel models. Drag the following network names to match them with their supported IEEE 802 standard.
IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks.More specifically, the IEEE 802 standards are restricted to networks carrying variable-size packets. (By contrast, in cell-based networks, data is transmitted in short, uniformly sized units called cells. Isochronous networks, where data is transmitted as a steady stream of octets, or groups of octets, at regular time intervals, are also out of the scope of this standard.) The number 802 was simply the next free number IEEE could assign, though "802" is sometimes associated with the date the first meeting was held February 1980. The services and protocols specified in IEEE 802 map to the lower two layers (Data Link and Physical) of the seven- layer OSI networking reference model. In fact, IEEE 802 splits the OSI Data Link Layer into two sub- layers named Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC), so that the layers can be listed like this: Data link layer LLC Sublayer MAC Sublayer Physical layer The IEEE 802 family of standards is maintained by the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC). The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN, Bridging and Virtual Bridged LANs. An individual Working Group provides the focus for each area. Wireless Regional Area Network Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) has a standard of IEEE
802.22 used for white spaces in the TV frequency spectrum. The development of the IEEE
802.22 WRAN standard is aimed at using cognitive radio techniques to allow sharing of geographically unused spectrum allocated to the Television Broadcast Service, on a non-
interfering basis, to bring broadband access to hard-to-reach, low population density areas, typical of rural environments, and is therefore timely and has the potential for a wide applicability worldwide.IEEE 802.22 WRANs are designed to operate in the TV broadcast bands while assuring that no harmful interference is caused to the incumbent operation, i.e., digital TV and analog TV broadcasting, and low power licensed devices such as wireless microphones. Metropolitan Area Network A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large Local Area Network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a Wide Area Network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber- optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks and the Internet. Examples of metropolitan area networks of various sizes can be found in the metropolitan areas of London, England; Lodz, Poland; and Geneva, Switzerland. Large universities also sometimes use the term to describe their networks. A recent trend is the installation of wireless MANs. Local Area Network Local Area Network (LAN) represents a network that covers a very close geographic area, such as a floor of a building, a building itself, or a campus environment. LAN is a high-speed network that connects computers, printers, and other network devices together. The media types used in LANs include Ethernet, Fast Ethernet (FE), Gigabit Ethernet (GE), Token Ring, and FDDI. A LAN may include servers, workstations, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, gateways, firewalls, etc.Personal area networkA personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one's person. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. A PAN can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet.Following are the working groups of IEEE 802:
Which of the following allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders?
Fair use policy
Fair use policy is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders, such as for commentary, criticism, news reporting, research, teaching, or scholarship. It provides for the legal, non-licensed citation, or incorporation of copyrighted material in another author's work under a four-factor balancing test. The term fair use originated in the United States. A similar principle, fair dealing, exists in some other common law jurisdictions. Answer option D is incorrect. Plagiarism is defined as the "use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work." While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. Plagiarism is not copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different transgressions. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material protected by copyright is used without consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of authorship.Answer option B is incorrect. A trademark is a name, symbol, or slogan with which a product is identified. Its uniqueness makes the product noticeable among the same type of products. For example, Pentium and Athlon are brand names of the CPUs that are manufactured by Intel and AMD, respectively. The trademark law protects a company's trademark by making it illegal for other companies to use it without taking prior permission of the trademark owner. A trademark is registered so that others cannot use identical or similar marks. Answer option C is incorrect. Libel is a false, malicious statement published in mainstream media (i.e., on the internet, in a magazine, etc.). If the defamatory statements are only spoken, they are called slander. Slander and libel are false or malicious claims that may harm someone's reputation. These are somewhat synonymous to defamation.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate word. tags are used to convey hidden information about a document, such as keywords, description, etc., to the server and the client.
wing network cables is most vulnerable to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)?
Fiber optic cable
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) is the ordinary wire used in home. UTP cable is also the most common cable used in computer networking. Ethernet, the most common data networking standard, utilizes UTP cables. Twisted pair cabling is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fiber and coaxial cable.UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications, primarily in security cameras. Many middle to high- end cameras include a UTP output with setscrew terminals. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. Answer option C is incorrect. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) is a special kind of copper telephone wiring used in some business installations. An outer covering or shield is added to the ordinary twisted pair telephone wires; the shield functions as a ground. Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects home and many business computers to the telephone company. Shielded twisted pair is often used in business installations. Answer option A is incorrect. Fiber optic cable is also known as optical fiber. It is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light. It is of cylindrical shape and consists of three concentric sections: the core, the cladding, and the jacket. Optical fiber carries much more information than conventional copper wire and is in general not subject to electromagnetic interference and the need to retransmit signals. Most telephone company's long- distance lines are now made of optical fiber. Transmission over an optical fiber cable requires repeaters at distance intervals. The glass fiber requires more protection within an outer cable than copper. Answer option B is incorrect. Coaxial cable is the kind of copper cable used by cable TV companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses. Coaxial cable is sometimes used by telephone companies from their central office to the telephone poles near users. It is also
widely installed for use in business and corporation Ethernet and other types of local area
network. Coaxial cable is called "coaxial" because it includes one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded (after a layer of insulation) by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can carry information for a great distance. It is shown in the
Mark the ring topology in the image below.
Ring topology is a type of physical network design where all computers in the network are connected in a closed loop. Each computer or device in a Ring topology network acts as a repeater. It transmits data by passing a token around the network in order to prevent the collision of data between two computers that want to send messages at the same time. If a token is free, the computer waiting to send data takes it, attaches the data and destination
address to the token, and sends it. When the token reaches its destination computer, the data is copied. Then, the token gets back to the originator. The originator finds that the message has been copied and received and removes the message from the token. Now, the token is free and can be used by the other computers in the network to send data. In this topology, if one computer fails, the entire network goes down.
You work as a Data Helpdesk Technician for Bluewells Inc. The company has a Windows- based network. You use Microsoft Outlook as the default mail client for accessing e-mails. You have given your e-mail address on the Web for receiving information on new technologies. You start receiving unwanted e-mail from various websites after registering. Which of the following terms refer to such types of unwanted e-mail? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
Junk e-mail is unsolicited e-mail. These types of e-mail always want to sell something. Junk e-mail is often sent as a single e-mail message broadcast to hundreds of unknowing recipients. One cannot write back to the sender of junk e-mails, as it is usually anonymous.
Junk e-mails provide an easy way to small companies and scammers to drum up some business. Spam is a term that refers to the unsolicited e-mails sent to a large number of e- mail users. The number of such e-mails is increasing day by day, as most companies now prefer to use e-mails for promoting their products. Because of these unsolicited e-mails, legitimate e-mails take a much longer time to deliver to their destination. The attachments sent through spam may also contain viruses. However, spam can be stopped by implementing spam filters on servers and e-mail clients. Answer option B is incorrect. A zombie is malicious software that secretly takes over another computer connected to the Internet. The zombie's creator uses the same computer to launch attacks that are difficult to detect.Zombies are used in denial-of-service attacks. The attacker plants a zombie in hundreds of computers belonging to unsuspecting third parties, and then uses these computers against targeted websites. These computers are also called zombie computers. Zombies are also used to commit click fraud against sites displaying pay per click advertising. Others can host phishing or money mule recruiting websites. Answer option A is incorrect. Botnet is a type of malware that allows an attacker to take control over an infected computer. It is also known as Web robots. Botnets are usually part of a network of infected machines, which is typically made up of victim machines that stretch across the Globe Some botnets have a few hundred or thousand computers, but others have tens and even hundreds of thousands of computers at their disposal. Many of these computers are infected without the knowledge of their owner.
Mark works as a Network Security Administrator for BlueWells Inc. The company has a Windows- based network. Mark is giving a presentation on Network security threats to the newly recruited employees of the company. His presentation is about the External threats that the company recently faced in the past. Which of the following statements are true about external threats? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose three.
These are the threats that originate from within the organization.
These are the threats intended to flood a network with large volumes of access requests.
These threats can be countered by implementing security controls on the perimeters of the network, such as firewalls, which limit user access to the Internet.
These are the threats that originate from outside an organization in which the attacker attempts to gain unauthorized access.
The difference between internal and external threats is as follows:Internal Threat: Internal threats originate from within an organization. These threats come from the employees and others having legal access. For example, a database administrator who has full access rights can easily steal the data. External Threat: External threats originate from outside an organization. These are the threats intended to flood a network with large volumes of access requests. These threats can be countered by implementing security controls on the
perimeters of the network, such as firewalls, which limit user access to the Internet. Answer option A is incorrect. Internal threats originate from within the organization. Such threats could come from either an employee or an internal member.
Electronic communication technology refers to the technology devices used for communication among individuals or groups. What are the advantages of using electronic communications? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
The interaction between people residing in different geographical area has become easy and user friendly.
Junk and spam e-mails provide valuable information.
Electronic communications allow for a virtually simultaneous exchange of information and responses.
Electronic communication provides the ability to archive and retrieve the information anywhere and anytime as per the convenience.
The following are the advantages of using electronic communications: One of the main advantages of electronic communication is that people across the world can share televised pictures, conversations, graphics, videos, music files, and interactive. The interaction
between people residing in different geographical area has become easy and user friendly.
The conversations are more visual and textual. With the help of E-mail, a recipient receives messages within a few seconds of the sender sending it. A recipient can read the message anytime, anywhere according to his convenience. Electronic communication provides the ability to archive and retrieve the information anywhere and anytime as per his convenience. Electronic communications allow for a virtually simultaneous exchange of information and responses. Answer option B is incorrect. Junk and spam e-mails are useless and they do not provide any valuable information.
In which of the following web technologies a user's request is fulfilled by running a script directly on the Web server to generate the dynamic web pages?
Scripting language developed by Microsoft that is modeled on Visual Basic. It is designed
as a 'lightweight' language with a fast interpreter for use in a wide variety of Microsoft environments. VBScript uses the Component Object Model to access the elements of the environment within which it is running; for example, the FileSystemObject (FSO) is used to create, read, update, and delete files.A VBScript script must be executed within a host environment, of which there are several provided with Microsoft Windows, including: Windows Script Host (WSH), Internet Explorer (IE), and Internet Information Services (IIS). Additionally, the VBScript hosting environment is embeddable in other programs, through technologies, such as the Microsoft Script Control.
Which of the following is a secure workspace in which networked team members, regardless of their geographical locations, can independently collaborate on a project?
Virtual team space
Virtual Team Space (VTS) is a room of IT-strengthened links where people, being geographically dispersed, communicate and interact with each other and where various soft- objects can be stored, modified, and searched. VTS may be implemented by use of Web 2.0 SaaS (software as service) such as wikis, blogs, discussion boards, google docs, MS-Office Live, MS Live Mesh, etc. or by use of vendor-proprietary software - IBM Lotus Sametime, MS SharePoint, MS Groove, etc. - or as combination of both. Answer option B is incorrect. A virtual machine (VM) is a software implementation of a machine (i.e. a computer) that executes programs like a physical machine. It is defined as an efficient, isolated duplicate of a real machine. Current use includes virtual machines, which have no direct correspondence to any real hardware. Virtual machines are separated into following two major categories, based on their use and degree of correspondence to any real machine: System virtual machine : It provides a complete system platform which supports the execution of a complete operating system (OS). Process virtual machine: It is designed to run a single program, which means that it supports a single process. An essential characteristic of a virtual machine is that the software running inside is limited to the resources and abstractions provided by the virtual machine. Answer option A is incorrect. A virtual directory allows users connecting to a virtual server with access to public folders or mailboxes on a local or remote domain. It is used for publishing a public folder or mailboxes in an SMTP domain. An administrator should create at least one virtual directory for each virtual server. However, he can create additional virtual directories to publish content that is not contained within the server's own directory structure. Answer option C is incorrect. A virtual host is used to create multiple Web sites that respond on the same IP
address and port through virtual host names. A virtual host depends on DNS entries and
provides the desired Web pages requested by users. A virtual host name can be provided as part of the logon name by specifying the Web site that is to be logged on.
Which of the following IEEE standards defines the MAC layer for a Token Ring?
The IEEE 802.5 standard defines the MAC layer for a Token Ring. Answer option A is incorrect. The IEEE 802.6 standard defines the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). Answer
option C is incorrect. The IEEE 802.7 standard defines broadband LAN using coaxial cables. Answer option B is incorrect. The IEEE 802.8 standard defines fiber optic TAG.