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HP0-277 OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration

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HP0-277 exam Dumps Source : OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration

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HP OpenVMS Version 7.x

a way to construct Ghostscript from supply code | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

a way to construct Ghostscript from source code how to build Ghostscript from supply code desk of contents

For different assistance, see the Ghostscript overview and the guidelines on a way to installation Ghostscript.

This document describes the way to build a Ghostscript executable from supply code. There are four primary steps to building Ghostscript:

  • acquire the compressed archive information of source code for Ghostscript and the necessary third-party libraries.
  • Unpack the archive information into the Ghostscript directory and properly named subdirectories.
  • prepare the makefiles, including certain adjustments to your operating atmosphere and your choice of configuration options.
  • Invoke "make" to construct the utility.
  • The remainder of this document describes each and every of those steps in detail. note that some of this manner is platform-stylish. After constructing Ghostscript you have to then install it; for that, see the installing guidance.

    constructing Ghostscript requires the Ghostscript supply code itself, and additionally the supply code for some third-celebration libraries that Ghostscript uses.

    Ghostscript source code

    There are two forms of Ghostscript distributions purchasable, called "Aladdin Ghostscript" and "GNU Ghostscript"; the distinction between them is explained within the circumstances for distributing Ghostscript. The authoritative distribution web page for Aladdin Ghostscript is


    the place "###" is the unpunctuated version quantity. GNU Ghostscript may still be obtainable on all GNU websites, similar to


    Ghostscript source code is packaged in two different codecs: gzip-compressed tar files (*.tar.gz) and zip info (*.zip). For all models there are gzip-compressed tar data:


    For contemporary models of Aladdin Ghostscript -- now not GNU Ghostscript -- there are also zip info (every zipped file suits onto a single 1.44MB diskette):


    ("#.##" and "###" are edition numbers in punctuated and unpunctuated kind.) utility to decompress and extract both formats is available for just about every platform for which Ghostscript is attainable -- together with Unix, DOS, MS home windows, and VMS -- so that you can choose the structure most handy for you; however it's up to you to locate that application. See the part on unpacking the supply code.

    Third-birthday celebration library source code

    To build Ghostscript you need the source code for the impartial JPEG community (IJG) library, the portable network photos (PNG) library, and the zlib compression and decompression library. here are authoritative distribution aspects for these libraries, where as somewhere else, "#" is used for version numbers. The JPEG source code is reasonably sturdy, so the reference right here includes the latest version number. The zlib references are edition-impartial and should at all times provide the latest edition.

    On DOS or MS home windows one on the whole makes use of the zip file kits, in different environments the compressed tar data, however here is easily a count of convenience, on the grounds that for a similar version of the application the compressed tar file has the same contents as the zip file. be aware that each and every of those libraries has its personal version quantity that has nothing to do with Ghostscript's edition quantity; you should definitely get the highest numbered version. (if you encounter difficulties within the construct method you may should use a lower-numbered edition, however don't be anxious about this yet.) if you're operating Linux, you might determine whether these libraries are already attainable in supply form on your gadget, seeing that many Linux distributors encompass them; however we suggest you to get the highest version from the web if you can.

    although the zip archives of an historical version of the PNG library may additionally not be named lpng###.zip, we discuss with it as lpng###.zip.

    sadly there are no often authorised specifications for the way to package supply code into archives, so the instructions for unpacking Ghostscript are longer than they may still be. We start with a brief explanation of a way to extract both types of archive files.

    a way to unpack compressed tar info generally

    Tar (.tar) info are the de facto typical for archiving information on Unix (each Unix gadget has the tar program), and programs to extract their contents are also extensively accessible for DOS, MS home windows, and VMS. To save money on space and downloading time, Ghostscript's tar information are compressed with GNU gzip, which provides the suffix ".gz" to the file identify, giving ".tar.gz".

    To unpack a compressed tar file MyArchive.tar.gz you ought to both decompress it and extract the contents. which you could try this in two steps, one to decompress the file and a further to unpack it:

    gzip -d MyArchive.tar.gztar -xf MyArchive.tar

    or in a pipeline:

    gzip -d -c MyArchive.tar.gz | tar -xf -

    or, if in case you have a software like GNU tar that may deal with compressed tar info, with a single command:

    tar -zxf MyArchive.tar.gz

    The tar application immediately preserves directory structure in extracting files. The Ghostscript supply archive places all information under a listing gs#.##, so using tar to unpack a compressed archive may still all the time competently create that directory, which we will name the "gs listing". be sure you're positioned within the guardian of the gs directory before unpacking the data. If a subdirectory would not exist already, tar creates it.

    any other programs -- under MS windows, as an example -- can additionally unpack compressed tar information, however they can also now not instantly preserve directory constitution nor even extract files into the current listing. in case you use one of those, you ought to

  • set the program's alternate options to "Use folder names" or the equivalent, and
  • determine that it's extracting files into the correct region.
  • the way to unpack zip info frequently

    Zip info are the de facto standard for archiving data on DOS and MS windows, and courses to extract their contents are extensively obtainable for DOS, MS home windows, Unix, VMS, and other platforms. Zip data are directly an archive format and a compressed structure, so an unzipping application decompresses and extracts archived information as a single step.

    One typical 16-bit DOS software is pkunzip, which comes in the pkzip kit. if you use this, you'll want to make sure that you've got at the least edition 2.04g, as a result of with its -d switch, that edition of pkunzip preserves the directory constitution of archived data when extracting them; see under. an additional regular free software to unpack zip archives, attainable for DOS and MS home windows (16-bit and 32-bit), Unix, VMS, and different platforms, is InfoZIP unzip:


    unlike pkunzip, InfoZIP unzip immediately preserves the listing constitution of extracted information. So if you have a zipper archive MyArchive.zip:

    Extracting zipped files Command      Preserves directory constitution pkunzip MyArchive.zip   does not pkunzip -d MyArchive.zip   DOES (be aware the -d swap) unzip MyArchive.zip   DOES

    As with the compressed tar info, be certain you might be placed within the parent of the gs directory before unpacking the files. If a subdirectory would not exist already, zip or pkunzip -d creates it.

    a way to unpack Ghostscript itself

    At this element you have obtained all the source code and are able to unpack it in keeping with the previous instructions for tar data or zip information. To unpack the Ghostscript source, make the mum or dad of the (new) gs directory the current listing.

    2-step:     gzip -d ghostscript-#.##.tar.gztar -xf ghostscript-#.##.tar Pipe:   gzip -d -c ghostscript-#.##.tar.gz | tar -xf - GNU tar:   tar -zxf ghostscript-#.##.tar.gz pkunzip:   pkunzip -d gs###sr1.zippkunzip -d gs###sr2.zip... unzip:   unzip gs###sr*.zip

    the entire Ghostscript supply files at the moment are in subdirectories of the gs listing.

    supply subdirectories Subdirectory      Contents src/   C source code and makefiles lib/   PostScript files and scripts used when working Ghostscript doc/   Documentation man/   Unix man pages examples/   pattern PostScript files the way to unpack the third-birthday celebration libraries

    The Ghostscript makefiles expect to discover the JPEG, PNG, and zlib supply code in certain subdirectories of the gs listing, and this capability you need to pay careful attention to unpacking the source code for these applications. Use the equal components for all of them, no count number how they're packaged:

  • Make the gs directory present.
  • Unpack the archive file, creating a subdirectory (with a purpose to encompass a edition quantity).
  • whatever the subdirectory's fashioned identify, rename it to the versionless identify proven just below.
  • if you're doubtful the way to unpack an archive, assessment the sections on compressed tar files and zip files.

    3d-birthday celebration utility subdirectories package      Possibleoriginal name      Rename to JPEG   ./jpeg-6b   ./jpeg PNG   ./libpng-#.##   ./libpng zlib   ./zlib-#.#.#   ./zlib

    before making any adjustments for your particular ambiance, investigate the submit-unencumber "ordinary bugs" be aware at


    where "###" is the unpunctuated edition variety of Ghostscript's latest unencumber. The page lists bugs general within the newest unencumber, and also offers workarounds and patches where obtainable. follow the patches earlier than building Ghostscript.

    The Ghostscript makefiles are very large and sophisticated with a view to take care of the distinct requirements of all of the distinctive methods where they may well be used. fortunately, the simplest makefiles you might be likely to want to change are especially small ones containing platform-certain information.

    Platform-selected makefiles Makefile      Used for bcwin32.mak   MS home windows with Borland/Inprise compilers msvc32.mak   MS home windows with Microsoft visual C++ version 4.n or 5.n openvms.mak   OpenVMS os2.mak   OS/2 with the gcc/emx compiler unix-gcc.mak   Unix with gcc unixansi.mak   Unix with ANSI C compilers other than gcc unixtrad.mak   Unix with "normal C" compilers watc.mak   DOS with Watcom compilers watcw32.mak   MS home windows with Watcom compilers   Platform-impartial makefiles contrib.mak   Contributed gadget drivers devs.mak   Aladdin's equipment drivers gs.mak   Documentation and miscellany int.mak   main makefile for the PostScript & PDF interpreter jpeg.mak   JPEG library lib.mak   pics engine libpng.mak   PNG library edition.mak   version and unlock date zlib.mak   zlib library

    considering the fact that these files trade from one Ghostscript edition to an extra, from time to time substantially, and on account that they all include documentation for the a variety of alternate options, here we don't replica most of that documentation: we recommend strongly that you just evaluation the whole makefile selected on your operating device and compiler before building Ghostscript.

    changes on your environment

    You have to edit the platform-certain makefile to change any of those:

  • The identify of the makefile itself (MAKEFILE macro)
  • The areas to deploy Ghostscript data (prefix etc.)
  • The default search paths for the initialization and font data (GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro)
  • The debugging alternatives (DEBUG and TDEBUG macros)
  • Which optional features to encompass (FEATURE_DEVS)
  • Which machine drivers to consist of (DEVICE_DEVS and DEVICE_DEVS1--20 macros)
  • Default resolution parameters for some printer drivers (devs.mak or contrib.mak, whichever defines the driving force)
  • The platform-specific makefiles include feedback describing all these apart from the DEVICE_DEVS options. These are described in devs.mak and contrib.mak, besides the fact that the file that need to be edited to choose them is the platform-certain makefile. check additionally the JVERSION and PVERSION macros in the platform-particular makefile, and alter them in the event that they do not suit the JPEG and PNG library models you are the use of: see jpeg.mak and libpng.mak for extra assistance.

    Some platform-specific alternatives are described within the sections for particular person structures. See the "alternate options" part near the beginning of the significant makefile for more guidance.

    choosing elements and contraptions

    You may additionally construct Ghostscript with any of numerous facets and with any subset of the purchasable machine drivers. The comprehensive checklist of aspects is in a comment firstly of gs.mak, and the comprehensive listing of drivers in feedback at first of devs.mak and contrib.mak. To locate what gadgets a platform-selected makefile selects to include in the executable, look in it for all strains of the kind

    FEATURE_DEVS=listing of aspectsDEVICE_DEVS*=checklist of devices

    for instance, if the makefile has


    indicating that best the PostScript level 2 amenities should be covered, you might make it

    FEATURE_DEVS=$(PSD)level2.dev $(PSD)pdf.dev

    to add the capacity to interpret PDF data. (in fact, FEATURE_DEVS within the current Unix makefiles already contains $(PSD)pdf.dev.) The Unix makefile also defines


    indicating that the X home windows driver should be protected, however when you consider that platform-certain makefiles as allotted continually encompass most of the viable elements and drivers, you will probably somewhat eliminate from the makefile the elements and drivers you don't want. It does no damage to encompass unneeded points and devices, but the ensuing executable could be bigger than mandatory.

    You might also edit the FEATURE_DEVS line to select or leave out any of the elements listed close the beginning of gs.mak, and the DEVICE_DEVS* lines to select or pass over any of the machine drivers listed near the starting of devs.mak and contrib.mak. the first equipment listed in the definition of DEVICE_DEVS becomes the default gadget for this executable; see the usage documentation for the way to opt for an output device at run time the usage of the -sDEVICE= change. in case you can't healthy all of the gadgets on a single line, you may also add strains defining

    DEVICE_DEVS1=$(DD)dev11.dev ... $(DD)dev1n.devDEVICE_DEVS2=$(DD)dev21.dev ... $(DD)dev2n.dev

    and so forth., up to DEVICE_DEVS15. don't use continuation traces -- on some structures they don't work.

    word that if you need to include a driver named xxx, you ought to put $(DD)xxx.dev in DEVICE_DEVS*. in a similar fashion, in case you want to include a characteristic related to the PostScript or PDF language interpreters (PostScript degree 1 .. three, or other language elements such because the capacity to read EPSF info or TrueType font information), you must represent it as $(PSD)xxx.dev. if you are linking best the portraits library -- not the language interpreter(s) -- with an software and need to encompass non-compulsory pictures library facets equivalent to CIE colour, you characterize them as $(GLD)xxx.dev.

    Precompiled run-time records

    Ghostscript invariably reads a few exterior information data at run time: initialization files containing PostScript code, fonts, and other components akin to halftones. by using changing alternatives within the precise-degree makefile for the platform, you can cause some of those files to be compiled into the executable: this simplifies installation, improves safety, may additionally reduce memory necessities, and might be fundamental if you're planning on inserting Ghostscript into ROM.

    To collect the initialization files (lib/gs_init.ps, and so on.) into the executable, change the 0 to a 1 within the line


    To bring together fonts into the executable, see Precompiling fonts.

    To collect threshold-array halftones into the executable, see the "Compiled halftone" component to int.mak for a pattern makefile fragment, genht.c for the syntax of halftone data files, and lib/ht_ccsto.ps for a pattern statistics file. word that even if the statistics data use PostScript syntax, compiled halftones don't require the PostScript interpreter and may be used with the snap shots library alone.

    GNU readline

    Aladdin Ghostscript does not include an interface to GNU readline. A user contributed code for this goal, which we spent large time debugging and then updating to tune internal architectural adjustments in Ghostscript. The contributor changed into willing to assign the copyright to Aladdin corporations, and to allow the code to be distributed with the Aladdin Free Public License (AFPL) as well as the GNU License (GPL). besides the fact that children, notwithstanding the GPL makes it possible for linking GPLed code (such as the GNU readline library package) with non-GPLed code (such as all the relaxation of Aladdin Ghostscript) if one does not distribute the outcomes, the Free software foundation, creators of the GPL, have told us that in their opinion, the GPL forbids distributing non-GPLed code that is in simple terms supposed to be linked with GPLed code. We remember FSF takes this position with the intention to keep away from the building of software it is partly GPLed and partly not GPLed, notwithstanding the textual content of the GPL does not definitely forbid this (it handiest forbids distribution of such utility). We suppose that FSF's position is legally questionable and never in the top of the line interest of clients, however we wouldn't have the elements to challenge it, specifically for the reason that FSF's legal professional apparently helps it. for this reason, although we introduced the person-contributed interface to GNU readline in inside Aladdin Ghostscript edition 5.71 and had it working in edition 5.ninety three (one of the most ultimate beta models earlier than the 6.0 free up), we removed it from the Aladdin Ghostscript 6.0 distribution.

    GNU Ghostscript distributions will encompass aid for GNU readline. As with different GNU Ghostscript add-ons that don't seem to be protected in Aladdin Ghostscript, Aladdin will not try and run, link, and even assemble this code, or maintain it current across alterations within the relaxation of Ghostscript. we are able to, youngsters, welcome computer virus fixes or updates, and distribute them with subsequent releases of GNU Ghostscript.

    the first GNU Ghostscript distribution in order to encompass GNU readline assist might be GNU Ghostscript 6.0, at the moment scheduled for release within the third quarter of 2000. before that time, we may additionally return the copyright of Ghostscript's GNU readline interface module, which the fashioned writer assigned to Aladdin organisations, to the creator, in order that users of GNU Ghostscript may have have access to it. however, considering it requires inside alterations no longer obtainable in any launched GNU Ghostscript edition earlier than 6.0, any consumer who receives this code and hyperlinks it with Aladdin Ghostscript 6.0 will, in accordance with FSF, be violating the intent (notwithstanding no longer the letter) of the GPL.

    We put appreciable work into making it viable for Ghostscript to make use of GNU readline, including the creation and adjustment of inner software interfaces especially to serve this purpose. In principle, we should have undone this work in Aladdin Ghostscript, lest FSF object to it too as meant to facilitate linking Aladdin Ghostscript with GNU readline (because the U.S. government has been observed to do for code that only provides APIs where encryption can be brought). despite the fact, we're willing to take this possibility in place of spend the time to undo the interface changes.

    when you've got feedback or questions about this situation, please consider free to contact the Free software foundation, authors of the GPL and copyright holders of GNU readline, at gnu@gnu.org, and Aladdin organizations, author and copyright holder of Ghostscript, at ghost@aladdin.com.

    constructing "makefile"

    After going during the steps simply described to unpack the sources, make any favored adjustments to the makefiles, and unpack or create links to the third celebration libraries, because the final step in making ready to construct Ghostscript you should always affiliate the identify "makefile" with the appropriate makefile in your ambiance so the make command can find it. See the section in your particular platform for a way to do that if vital.

    Invoking "make" make Builds Ghostscript with out debugging alternate options. make debug Builds Ghostscript with debugging options and further interior error assessments. The program should be somewhat larger and slower, nonetheless it will behave no differently until you really switch on debugging alternate options at execution time with the -DDEBUG or -Z command line switches described in the utilization documentation. make pg On Unix platforms, builds with the -pg compiler change, developing an executable for time profiling. make begin On computer structures, makes an attempt a brief and dirty compilation of all the .c data in the existing directory. See the extra exact rationalization. make install After constructing, installs the Ghostscript executables, guide info, and documentation, however does not set up fonts. See the installing documentation. make cleanDeletes all of the data created through the construct manner (relocatables, executables, and miscellaneous temporary data). in case you've developed an executable and want to reserve it, flow it first to a further vicinity, because "make clean" deletes it.

    be aware: on most platforms some of these simple instructions do not reasonably work in one method or another. study the part on your certain platform.


    if you're compiling Ghostscript on machines X1 ... Xn with go-compilers that generate code for machine Y, you must first function a few additional steps on some laptop Z (no longer always of the identical category as both Xi or Y). firstly, select a makefile applicable for Z and edit it to mirror the run-time alternate options you are looking to encompass (FEATURE_DEVS, DEVICE_DEVS*, and another principal options), just as for non-go-compilation.

    If Z runs Unix, function the following steps:

  • On Z,

    make cleanmake obj/arch.h obj/genconf obj/echogs

  • Edit obj/arch.h to mirror the structure of Y.
  • On Z,

    make CC=: CCLD=:

  • replica the info obj/*.h from Z to the directory on each Xi that should be used for compilation.
  • Extract from the file obj/ldt.tr (on Z) the listing of .o information that can be linked: this offers the checklist of source information that ought to be compiled.
  • Do the compilations on Xi.
  • If Z runs some edition of Microsoft windows with Microsoft visible C++, use the following steps. be aware: We have not basically established this.

  • On Z,

    nmake cleannmake obj\arch.h obj\genconf.exe obj\echogs.exe

  • Edit obj\arch.h to reflect the architecture of Y.
  • On Z,

    nmake CC=rem hyperlink=rem

  • copy the files obj\*.h from Z to the listing on each and every Xi that may be used for compilation.
  • Extract from the file obj\ldt.tr (on Z) the record of .obj data that may be linked: this offers the checklist of source information that need to be compiled.
  • Do the compilations on Xi.
  • All Ghostscript builds in pc (DOS and MS windows) environments are 32- or sixty four-bit: sixteen-bit builds don't seem to be supported. The vital makefiles are

    To build Ghostscript you want MS-DOS version three.three or later and Borland/Inprise C/C++ (four.0 or later); Microsoft visible C++ (edition 4.0 or later); Watcom C/386 (edition 8.5 or later) or C++ (any edition); or the free djgpp + go32 development device. The alternate options in the makefiles are chosen to strike a stability between RAM consumption and likely usefulness. in case you run make in listing dir, the default configuration generates an executable that assumes the Ghostscript initialization and font information are in directory dir\lib.

    note that the make application presented with each and every laptop compiler has a unique name. We consult with this application generically as make in all places else in this doc, but you'll discover the proper identify for every compiler in the central part under that discusses that compiler.

    You need to have COMMAND.COM to your path to build Ghostscript. After making the changes necessary to opt for facets and devices to build into the executable, you have to create the listing where the compiler will do its work (continually the obj subdirectory of the present directory) and the directory where the compiled code could be positioned (consistently the bin subdirectory). Then to construct the Ghostscript executable all you need do is provide the make command.

    a unique make target "begin" attempts to collect all the .c info in the existing directory. Some of these compilations will fail, but the ones that prevail will go considerably faster as a result of they do not personally pay the overhead of setting out the compiler. So an outstanding approach for constructing the executable for the primary time, or after changing a ordinary .h file, is to do the fast compilation of every little thing viable, then the controlled compilation of everything that failed within the first step:

    make beginmake

    be aware: if you unpack the Ghostscript sources on a DOS or MS windows device from a Unix tar file, the unpacked information have linefeed on my own as the line terminator (the Unix conference) as an alternative of carriage return + linefeed (the Microsoft conference), which might also make the C compiler unhappy. One simple approach to fix this, when you have the InfoZIP zip and unzip classes, is

    zip -l CVTEMP.zip *.bat *.c *.h      (Letter "l", no longer the digit "1") unzip -o CVTEMP.zip   (Rewrite all the equal files accurately) del CVTEMP.zip   (Delete the transient zip file) Borland/Inprise atmosphere

    To collect Ghostscript with the Borland/Inprise atmosphere (hereafter referred to as simply "Borland"), you want Borland C++ (edition 4.0 or later); specifically the compiler, make utility, and linker. You additionally want either the Borland assembler (version 1.0 or later) or the Microsoft assembler (edition 4.0 or later).

    To create "makefile", give the command

    echo !consist of "src\bcwin32.mak" >makefile

    To run the make software, give the commmand


    anyway the supply info and the makefiles, you need:

    *.bat   (a lot of batch data used within the construct procedure)

    feedback in the makefiles describe the configuration parameters. in case your configuration is distinct from right here, make sure to in fact examine those comments and notice if you want or deserve to change any of this:

  • The compiler information are in C:\BC and its subdirectories.
  • you're using the Borland assembler tasm.
  • You need an executable so as to run on any 32-bit computing device-appropriate, regardless of processor type (80386, 80486, Pentium, or suitable) and in spite of no matter if a math coprocessor (80x87) is existing -- a controversy simplest with 80386 processors.
  • Notes

  • A user reports that the Borland C++ 4.00 with patch 1-6 would not produce a working executable of Ghostscript 5.03. We can not examine this, for the reason that we not have this compiler.
  • Borland C++ four.5 has a bug or bugs that trigger(s) the 32-bit home windows executable to crash in case you supply any @-files on the command line. amongst other things, this makes the uniprint driver unusable, because it references the .upp configuration information this fashion. This issue can also maybe be mounted by one or greater of the patch data on


  • Borland C++ 4.52 has a computer virus that causes the 32-bit windows executable to fail throughout startup. Borland (now Inprise) gives a patch for this computer virus in


  • Borland C++ 5.0 and 5.01 have a code generator computer virus that generates improper code for the assemble !file_is_valid(). don't try to collect Ghostscript with these compilers. if you want to document this worm to Borland, ship them the effect of compiling ziodev.c and inform them to seem on the code generated for file_is_valid() and !file_is_valid(). We don't know no matter if Borland C++ 5.02 still has this problem.
  • When constructing for the MS windows Win32s ambiance, the make procedure will cease after it has created genarch.exe. you'll want to then run "_genarch.bat", wait except genarch has entire and then exit MS windows. Then classification "make" again to restart the make method.
  • Microsoft atmosphere

    observe: we've got studies that the Microsoft visible C++ 5.0 and 6.0 compilers produce improper code for Ghostscript version 6.0 and later, from the identical source code that compiles and runs appropriately with other compilers. We strongly advocate the usage of the Inprise (Borland) compiler rather than MSVC++ 5.0 or later. (We use the Inprise compiler for the executables that we distribute ourselves.) You may additionally also wish to are trying out the Intel C/C++ compiler, which may also be built-in into the Microsoft visible C++ environment.

    To collect Ghostscript with the Microsoft ambiance, you need Microsoft visible C++ four.0 or later with its linked "nmake" utility and linker. if you're the usage of edition 4.x, before building, in msvc32.mak discover the line "MSVC_VERSION = 5" and change it to "MSVC_VERSION = 4".

    To create "makefile", give the command

    echo !encompass src\msvc32.mak >makefile

    To run the make program, supply the commmand


    You may additionally get error messages all over compilation about /QI0f being an undefined change, or the message "dwmain32.def: EXETYPE not supported for platform; disregarded" all over linking. Ignore them.

    The Microsoft VC++ 5.0 compiler locks up when compiling gxi12bit.c with /O2. assemble this file devoid of /O2.

    The Microsoft VC++ 5.0 compiler produces a non-working executable if compiling devoid of stack checking. don't trade the atmosphere TDEBUG=1 in msvc32.mak.

    Making self-extracting executables

    that you may build self-extracting windows executables of Ghostscript. (here is not crucial to make use of Ghostscript.) currently this requires each the Borland/Inprise and the Microsoft compilers, and additionally two items of third-celebration utility:

    you're going to need to edit src/winint.mak to define WINZIPSE_XE and ZIP_XE respectively because the path names of these courses. See unlock.htm for the targeted method.

    Watcom atmosphere

    as a result of boundaries within the means that Watcom carried out their wmake application, you should run the Watcom equipment beneath MS home windows, even though you're generating a DOS executable. here is very unlucky, and there is no decent technical cause of it, but we have been unable to steer Watcom (now Powersoft) to do anything about it.

    to use the Watcom compiler, add to AUTOEXEC.BAT the line "set DOS4G=quiet". examine that AUTOEXEC.BAT also consists of a line of the form "set WATCOM=wcdir" the place wcdir is the directory where you installed the Watcom equipment, and that the environment of route includes wcdir\binnt (or %WATCOM%\binnt) before wcdir\binw (or %WATCOM%\binw). Then to create "makefile":

    For     provide the command DOS   echo !include src\watc.mak >makefile MS windows   echo !encompass src\watcw32.mak >makefile

    earlier than compiling, change the definition of the WCVERSION macro within the makefile (watc.mak or watcw32.mak) to the version of the Watcom compiler you're the use of. this is vital to deal with some minor incompatibilities between types.

    To run the make software, give the commmand

    wmake -u

    For assistance on the use of the GNU make program with the Watcom compiler to construct MS-DOS executables, which avoids the boundaries in wmake, see here.

    Cygwin32 gcc

    A person stories that it is viable to compile Ghostscript for MS windows NT using the Cygwin32 gcc compiler, GNU make, and the unix-gcc.mak makefile, with handiest two small source code changes:

  • Add "b" to the call to fopen in gp_open_scratch
  • replicate the gp_ntfs logic for gp_file_name_is_absolute
  • assistance about this compiler and ambiance is at the Cygnus site:


    Please observe that Cygnus's licensing terms are not rather as liberal about redistribution as both the GNU conventional Public License or the Aladdin Free Public License, so read their license cautiously if you need to redistribute the results of the usage of their compiler.

    Intel C/C++ atmosphere

    Intel offers a C/C++ compiler it truly is suitable with the Microsoft visible C++ atmosphere. The leading talents of this compiler over MSVC 5.0 and 6.0 is that it produces working code even when all optimizations are enabled and when stack checking is disabled.

    To construct Ghostscript the use of the Intel C/C++ compiler, you ought to make right here small changes within the makefiles:

  • discover and change the second occurrence of "COMPILE_FULL_OPTIMIZED" to "/O2" in file msvccmd.mak.
  • Override "TDEBUG", "COMP", and "COMPAUX" when invoking nmake.
  • extra peculiarly, use "TDEBUG=0" and set each "COMP" and "COMPAUX" to the complete route of icl (for instance "COMP=C:\intel\compiler45\bin\icl" if the Intel C/C++ compiler V4.5 turned into installed to C:\intel). it is cautioned that you simply use a batch file to launch nmake, for the reason that the command line strategies the "=" on its own. also, you could need to execute vcvars32.bat and iccvars.bat to register the appropriate paths for the compiler, its encompass files and its libraries.

    that you would be able to buy or down load a 30-day contrast version of the Intel C/C++ compiler from Intel's software performance tools internet web site:


    usual MacOS

    There are further Mac-particular source files in a distribution break free the leisure of Ghostscript. besides the average Ghostscript sources, you'll need here info:

    ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/ghost/aladdin/mac/macgs-###-src.sit.bin supply files as a StuffIt archive ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/ghost/aladdin/mac/macgsmanual.html a way to use and build MacGS ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/ghost/aladdin/mac/macgs-###-fonts*.sit down.bin Fonts (correctly not to construct MacGS however to installation it)

    in case you will not have a application to expand and unpack these data, get the free StuffIt Expander application from your favourite Macintosh archive.

    within the typical method of constructing Ghostscript, these information except the JPEG are unpacked into one big listing; the JPEG stuff is unpacked right into a listing known as jpeg-6 below the leading listing. The Macintosh stuff is additionally unpacked into its personal listing, called "Mac particular". despite the fact, if you like you can deploy all these files during this hierarchy:

    cautioned Macintosh hierarchy Ghost Dev      files   (All *.ps, *.htm, and other non-build info)   fonts   (Fonts)   src   (*.c, *.h, *.mak)   jpeg-6   (JPEG data)   Mac specific   (Mac files)   MPW build   (Empty listing used for building under MPW)

    once everything is laid out, seem on the file Worksheet within the "Mac particular" folder for comprehensive steps to build the equipment with either MPW or CodeWarrior.

    Some models of CodeWarrior on the PowerPC have a code technology malicious program that explanations the compiled Ghostscript to from time to time produce unhealthy output. To steer clear of triggering this malicious program, do not use the "Use FMADD & FMSUB" Code Gen choice. We recommend the use of right here alternate options (for CodeWarrior four, all patches applied):

    Code Gen:Struct alignment: PowerPCTraceback Tables: InlineTarget Processor: 750 (or as acceptable for your system)shop Static statistics in TOCSchedule InstructionsPeephole Optimization

    world Optimizations:stage three

    Rhapsody OS

    presently, building with Rhapsody is only supported with non-monitor gadgets, similar to pdfwrite for changing PostScript to PDF, raster file devices similar to pbmraw, and printers. For this ambiance, use unixansi.mak with these extra definitions within the make command line: SYNC=nosync STDLIBS= DEVICE_DEVS= (sure, there's basically just a space after the second and third '=').

    before issuing the make command to construct Ghostscript, you need to make some selections, as an example

  • which compiler to make use of;
  • what features and devices to encompass;
  • no matter if to use equipment libraries for PNG and zlib;
  • and how to deal with considerations for your specific platform.
  • be sure to examine the sections on device-, OS-, and hardware-selected issues for notes in your selected platform and compiler. in reality, that's the primary location to assess in case you build Ghostscript and it crashes or produces most likely fallacious consequences.

    The multi-structure makefile

    exceptionally when you are working in a Unix atmosphere with numerous CPU kinds, working programs, and/or C compilers, you may also locate the file all-arch.mak constructive. This consumer-contributed file contains "wrappers" for the Unix makefiles for a variety of normal environments. The author of this file notes:

    This makefile allows you to execute

    make `hostname`

    on any laptop on a community, while not having to determine the Makefile for a particular target name. additionally, one of the most aims in the Makefile include particular changes in compiler alternate options for definite files, to work around compiler bugs that Ghostscript has been so good at exposing. Having that particular handling written down in a Makefile proves very effortless.

    I don't do "make deploy" until I've accomplished

    cd ...build-directory.../gs-x.yz cd lib ../bin/gs ../examples/tiger.ps

    and established that the noted tiger can also be as it should be displayed. additionally, the "make set up" step is careful to first eliminate any present $(BINDIR)/gs, then install a brand new gs there with a hard link to gs-x.yz.

    That approach, each installing makes gs a synonym for the newest release, but previous ones remain in location in case backtracking is required, which I've fairly commonly desired to do when investigating modified habits, or a suspected worm.

    When i've been experimenting with a brand new function, comparable to GNU readline support, I alternate the setting of GS from gs to ngs (new gs), in order now not to ruin any latest classes by means of the installation of an experimental edition.

    establishing "makefile"

    The data src/unix*.mak are the makefiles for Unix platforms, and also you select one in keeping with what compiler you use. To construct Ghostscript, although, you need to use the primary command "make", which have to discover the file "makefile" (or "Makefile"). in case your device supports symbolic hyperlinks, deploy "makefile" like this.

    GNU gcc:      ln -s src/unix-gcc.mak makefile Non-gcc ANSI C compiler:   ln -s src/unixansi.mak makefile "normal" C compiler:   ln -s src/unixtrad.mak makefile

    if your device doesn't help symbolic hyperlinks, first conclude all changes to the compiler-specific makefile, then make a tough hyperlink, omitting the -s change.

    The makefile disbursed with Ghostscript selects the following devices to encompass in the build:

    gadgets included as dispensed type    gadgets screen   X home windows Printers   H-P DeskJets, LaserJets, and colour DeskJets and PaintJets; Canon BubbleJets File formats   community three & community 4 fax; JPEG; PCX; PBM, PGM, PKM, & PPM; TIFF; PostScript images; PNG; distilled PDF, PostScript, and EPS; PCL XL ("PCL 6")

    The unix*.mak files explicitly collect and link the JPEG, PNG, and zlib libraries into the executable. in case your Unix system already contains the PNG and zlib libraries -- doubtless in /usr/lib/libpng.a,so and /usr/lib/libz.a,so -- and you would reasonably use these copies, alternate the definition of SHARE_LIBPNG and SHARE_ZLIB from 0 to 1 within the imperative unix*.mak file earlier than compiling. note that if you try this, you'll get non-debug types of those libraries in spite of the fact that you selected DEBUG within the makefile. at the insistence of some clients, we have also offered the ability to do that with the JPEG library (SHARE_JPEG), however should not use it: as a way to be compatible with Adobe interpreters (which don't comply with the JPEG standard precisely), Ghostscript has to collect the IJG code with the non-general definition

    #define D_MAX_BLOCKS_IN_MCU 64

    and for the reason that shared versions of this library shouldn't have been compiled this fashion, you awill get errors on some legitimate PostScript and PDF input info.

    If the X11 customer header information are located in some directory which your compiler doesn't immediately search, you must alternate the XINCLUDE macro in the makefile to include a particular -I change. See the remark preceding XINCLUDE within the makefile.

    currently Ghostscript is deploy to bring together and hyperlink in a accepted Unix ambiance. Some Unix environments can also require altering the LDFLAGS macro in the makefile; be sure to verify the Unix section for your certain tools, working gadget, and hardware.

    Ghostscript makes use of ANSI syntax for feature definitions. because of this, when compiling with cc ("normal" C), it need to preprocess each and every .c file to transform it to the older syntax described in Kernighan and Ritchie, which is what most current Unix compilers (other than gcc) guide. This step is automatically carried out through a utility called ansi2knr, which is protected within the Ghostscript distribution. The makefile immediately builds ansi2knr. The ansi2knr preprocessing step is protected in the makefile rule for compiling .c files. ansi2knr creates a file referred to as _temp_$$.c to cling the converted code, the place $$ is the method id. If for some reason you are looking to exchange this name, it's defined in a script file ccgs.

    device-particular problemsgcc 2.7.*

    some of the issues in using gcc are very certain to the specific computer, the specific edition of the operating gadget, and the certain edition of gcc purchasable to you. which you could check the version of gcc with the gcc --version command.

    An optimizer worm in gcc versions 2.7.0, 2.7.1, and a couple of.7.2 factors the compiler to generate fallacious code. The makefile works round this, but we recommend that if possible you utilize either an past or a later edition of gcc; as an example, gcc 2.5.eight, gcc 2.6.3, or later which don't have this trojan horse. notice, although, that gcc has different complications on some structures, so please study the area in your certain platform.

    GNU make

    present versions of GNU make have no complications, however GNU make 3.59 cannot address the last linking step in some situations; if this happens, use the platform's normal make, customarily /bin/make.

    OS-selected problems386 Unix
  • gcc models older than 1.38 on Intel 80386 techniques don't collect Ghostscript appropriately with the -O alternative.
  • gcc 1.39 below 386BSD has a computer virus that motives drift-to-integer conversions to compile incorrectly, rendering the executable unusable.
  • X11R5 could need "#include <stddef.h>" in x_.h.
  • additionally see regarding system V platforms.
  • BSDI
  • Use unix-gcc.mak and set

    STDLIBS=-lmXINCLUDE=-I/usr/X11R6/includeXLIBDIRS=-L/usr/X11R6/libXLIBS=Xt SM ICE Xext X11

  • in case you wish to use the shared models of the PNG and zlib libraries, set SHARE_LIBPNG=1 and SHARE_ZLIB=1 as discussed in the past.
  • BSD make uses a special syntax for its consist of directive than Ghostscript; use gmake as an alternative.
  • Digital Unix (Alpha)
  • Use unixansi.mak for all Digital Unix compilers.
  • For models of Digital Unix before four.0, set

    CFLAGS=-std -migrate -Olimit a thousand -g3 -O2 $(XCFLAGS)LDFLAGS=-a lot $(XLDFLAGS)

    You could be able to pass over -g3. For later models of Digital Unix, users have pronounced that the appropriate flags are

    CFLAGS=-std1 -Olimit one thousand -g3 -O2 $(XCFLAGS)

    once more, optionally omitting the -g3.

  • FreeBSD

    On FreeBSD techniques, within the top-stage makefile (unixansi.mak, unix-gcc.mak, or unixtrad.mak), alternate the value of STDLIBS from -lpthread -lm to -lc_r -lm earlier than building.

  • if you construct on Linux with X11 R6 or later, you may additionally get hyperlink-time error messages about undefined references to a lot of capabilities beginning with "SMC" and "ICE". If this occurs, be sure that XLIBS within the makefile is determined to "Xt SM ICE Xext X11" as opposed to "Xt Xext X11".
  • With gcc version 2.6.3 or later, you can also come upon an incompatibility in object codecs (a.out vs. ELF) with the XFree86 library. typically, ld complains that some X library is not found, or that many Xlib or Xt features aren't present in the library (comparable to the messages for omitting SM and ICE from XLIBS). or you get a message if you start Ghostscript that the application or the shared library is an unrecognized format. If this occurs, edit unix-gcc.mak so as to add the switches "-b i486-linuxaout" to each CFLAGS and LDFLAGS, then "make clear" followed by using "make"). If this doesn't help, or if other bizarre issues ensue, contact your Linux corporation or support resource.
  • just a few of Ghostscript's drivers are multi-threaded (at the moment only those whose names begin with "bmpa"). These drivers require libc edition 6 or greater. Some Linux distributions, together with purple Hat distributions earlier than 5.0, have libc version 5, so these drivers may also now not bring together. If this occurs, eliminate these drivers (from the definitions of DEVICE_DEVS* in unix-gcc.mak), and, if you want, change the corresponding single-threaded drivers, whose names don't include the "a".
  • You can also want to create RPM (pink Hat package supervisor) data for Ghostscript. as a result of the lack of standardization of installing directory names between Linux releases, Ghostscript does not come with any RPM specification information. You may additionally need to contact the following people who have created RPM spec info in the past:

    Henri Gomez hgomez@slib.frRussell Lang gsview@ghostgum.com.auCristian Gafton gafton@redhat.comPreston Brown pbrown@redhat.com

    right here directions may additionally work for the Ghostscript 6.0x distributions, upon getting RPM spec information that you just agree with are applicable.

    To create RPMs for Ghostscript N.NN:

  • exchange to your supply listing (/usr/src/redhat for purple Hat Linux 5.1).
  • reproduction ghostscript-N.NN*.tar.gz (4 source data) to the SOURCES subdirectory.
  • replica ghostscript-fonts-std-6.0.tar.gz and ghostscript-fonts-other-6.0.tar.gz to the SOURCES subdirectory.
  • From SOURCES/ghostscript-N.NN.tar.gz,
  • extract rpm-conf.dif and copy to SOURCES/ghostscript-N.NN-config.patch
  • extract gs.rps and copy to SPECS/ghostscript-N.NN.spec
  • extract gs-fonts.rps and duplicate to SPECS/ghostscript-fonts-N.NN.spec
  • If the contents of those information have become obsolete, you will deserve to replace the edition quantity N.NN in the spec information, and replace the patch file.
  • change to the SPECS subdirectory after which execute the instructions

    rpm -ba ghostscript-N.NN.specrpm -ba ghostscript-fonts-N.NN.spec

    this can create the RPM information


  • See instructions on a way to installation Ghostscript beneath Unix.
  • Bruce Babcock <babcock@math.psu.edu> has made purchasable every thing necessary to construct Ghostscript under Linux Slackware three.*, red Hat four.* and 5.*, and Debian 1.* and a couple of.0; the files encompass guidance and shell scripts to build and set up Ghostscript, in addition to the entire source and font kits and patches needed:


  • when you are the use of a NeXTSTEP version earlier than 3.three, please get a no-cost improve (together with Y2K patches) from Apple.
  • For all NeXTSTEP systems, use unix-gcc.mak. Make here adjustments:
  • In unix-aux.mak (and ugcclib.mak, when you are the use of best the library) change the definition of encompass to "consist of=/usr/include/bsd";
  • in unix-gcc.mak, change CC=gcc to CC=cc, exchange the definition of STDLIBS to only -lm, add -D_POSIX_SOURCE to CFLAGS and remove -g, and take away -Wstrict-prototypes from GCFLAGS; and
  • to the conclusion of Fontmap.GS add the line "/Ohlfs /Courier ;".
  • when you are working the Pencom co-Xist X server (building edition), the X headers and libraries are within the default places, so alternate the makefile definitions of XINCLUDE and XLIBDIRS to empty strings.
  • SCO Unix/Xenix
  • See additionally "386 Unix" and "equipment V Unix platforms".
  • The commonplace cc compiler on SCO OpenServer v5 has optimizer bugs. bring together devoid of -O.
  • The SCO Unix C compiler apparently can't handle the Pn macros in std.h. in case you get ordinary compilation error on SCO Unix, ask SCO for a compiler fix.
  • in the meantime, to make use of gcc with SCO ODT, see unix-gcc.mak for the acceptable swap settings.
  • because of a computer virus in SCO's floating element emulator, gcc 2.three.3 produces code that factors crashes on machines with out hardware floating point. Use a unique compiler on these machines.
  • in case you are not using the X11 driver, you must add -lsocket to the cost of EXTRALIBS to link the date and time features.
  • if you want to use direct frame buffer addressing as a substitute of X windows, encompass the primary frame buffer gadgets ($(DD)ega.dev, $(DD)vga.dev, and so forth.) and change the definition of EGAVGA to $(EGAVGA_SCO) as indicated in devs.mak. word: this works with SuperVGA shows best for 800x600x16 mode.
  • If the reveal looks "smeared", are attempting recompiling gdevpcfb.c with -O0.
  • If Ghostscript crashes, use the -q swap or redirect console output to a file.
  • if your compiler accepts both the -Xt and -Xa switches, use -Xt. even if this factors the compiler to make use of unsuitable guidelines for computing the influence styles of "<<" and ">>", -Xa permits optimizations that produce flawed code.
  • For SCO ODT 2.0, in addition to -D__SVR3 and -DSYSV, you deserve to specify -Dsco, -DUSG, and -DMALLOC_0_RETURNS_NULL. For SCO ODT, you need "EXTRALIBS=-lX11 -lsocket -lmalloc", or perhaps only -lsocket depending on the edition), and for SCO ODT 2.0, you must additionally specify -lc_s. For SCO Xenix, you want "EXTRALIBS=-lmalloc".
  • For SCO OpenServer 5.0.5, add -L/usr/native/lib to LDFLAGS.
  • For all SCO techniques, set "XINCLUDE=" and "XLIBDIRS=".
  • SVR4 Unix
  • You could need to set EXTRALIBS=-lnsl.
  • do not alternate PLATFORM=unix_ to PLATFORM=sysv_.
  • On SVR4 Unix platforms with dynamic linking, you may wish to define XLIBDIR as the identify of the listing that holds the X home windows libraries. do not prefix the identify with "-L".
  • For SVR4.0 systems, set -DSVR4 and -DSVR4_0 within the makefile; do not set -DSYSV. For SVR4.2 (or later) and Solaris 2.n techniques, set handiest -DSVR4 (now not -DSVR4_0 nor -DSYSV).
  • system V Unix systems
  • when you are the use of a stock gadget V platform that lacks rename and gettimeofday, in the makefile change "PLATFORM=unix_" to "PLATFORM=sysv_".
  • you're going to doubtless need to change the definition of install from "deploy" to "/usr/ucb/install".
  • Unixware
  • The ordinary cc compiler has optimizer bugs. assemble with out -O.
  • Hardware-certain problemsAlpha with gcc
  • You don't have to use gcc on Alpha programs, because the bundled compiler works.
  • The Alpha code generator in gcc is damaged. gcc 2.5.eight and a pair of.6.3 are probably usable. types earlier than 2.5.0 are believed now not to work. We indicate you use a recent version.
  • if you really need to use gcc 2.7.x, here is a patch for that version from gcc maintainer Jim Wilson <wilson@cygnus.com>. *** reload.c.orig solar Mar 9 14:05:23 1997 --- reload.c sun Mar 9 14:06:54 1997 *************** push_secondary_reload (in_p, x, opnum, o *** 589,600 **** set it up now. */ if (in_p && icode == CODE_FOR_nothing ! && SECONDARY_MEMORY_NEEDED (classification, reload_class, reload_mode)) ! get_secondary_mem (x, reload_mode, opnum, class); if (! in_p && icode == CODE_FOR_nothing ! && SECONDARY_MEMORY_NEEDED (reload_class, classification, reload_mode)) ! get_secondary_mem (x, reload_mode, opnum, class); #endif } --- 589,600 ---- set it up now. */ if (in_p && icode == CODE_FOR_nothing ! && SECONDARY_MEMORY_NEEDED (class, reload_class, mode)) ! get_secondary_mem (x, mode, opnum, category); if (! in_p && icode == CODE_FOR_nothing ! && SECONDARY_MEMORY_NEEDED (reload_class, class, mode)) ! get_secondary_mem (x, mode, opnum, category); #endif }
  • H-P Apollo
  • You ought to run the compiler in ANSI-appropriate mode (this is, set AK=null string within the makefile); in any other case it gives flawed error messages for any function declared as returning a float cost.
  • The H-P Apollo compiler may not collect Ghostscript appropriately. in case you get unexpected crashes at run time, use gcc.
  • AT&T 7040 R3
  • If Ghostscript crashes on startup, recompile with -O0 to work round compiler bugs.
  • Convex
  • Use unixansi.mak. do not invoke optimization (-O1) since the compiler will produce incorrect code.
  • Set CFLAGS to "-no -fn -tm c1".
  • DECStations with Ultrix
  • if you get the compiler message "cfe: fatal: _temp_19086.c: Segmentation violation" or an identical one, try compiling with the -oldc swap.
  • You may additionally wish to set


    within the makefile so as to add the monitor PostScript font directory to the font search path.

  • Set

    CFLAGS="-Olimit 2500"

    to make the optimizer allocate adequate desk space.

  • The Ultrix 4.4 C compiler compiles gdevm1.c incorrectly. Insert right here line in the makefile rule for "gdevm1.$(OBJ)" (the physique of the guideline is empty in the standard distribution):

    $(CCC) -oldc gdevm1.c

  • H-P RISC workstations
  • HP-UX models before 11.0 don't aid POSIX threads. Set SYNC=nosync in the makefile before building.
  • Ghostscript builds on H-P machines with both GNU gcc or H-P's ANSI-equipped cc. The minimal, non-ANSI-in a position cc that ships with a simple HPUX device doesn't work. If cc on your gadget doesn't settle for the -Aa swap, you then deserve to get the complete cc or gcc.
  • if you use H-P's compiler, be sure you have got upgraded to a recent release. Many weird indicators were pronounced trying to construct Ghostscript with older, buggier compilers, as an example:
  • The link step fails with a message about "max" now not being described.
  • The build succeeds, however the resulting executable fails to delivery up, with an error message like "Initializing... Unrecoverable error: typecheck in .registerencoding".
  • The construct succeeds, however the ensuing executable produces a black heritage on the first page of output.
  • it is said that On HPUX 9.* you want as a minimum compiler patch PHSS_5723 and dld.sl patch PHSS_5734 to construct Ghostscript. (As of late 1997, those patches are long out of date; the latest patches are compiler PHSS_10357 and dld.sl PHSS_11246. it is unknown no matter if current Ghostscript releases work with compiler/dld.sl versions older than these.)
  • On HPUX 10.*, we do not know what combinations of compiler version and switches work. it's stated that On HPUX 10.20, atmosphere "CC=c89" and "CFLAGS=+O3 $(XCFLAGS)" works, contradicting the counsel within the subsequent paragraph, however this may well be dependent on the selected compiler edition.
  • In both HPUX version, you deserve to set "CC=cc -Aa" (or use -Ae in case you prefer), and set "CFLAGS=-D_HPUX_SOURCE -O $(XCFLAGS)". better stages of optimization than -O can also work reckoning on your compiler revision; some users have reported success with +O3, some haven't.
  • Some users have suggested needing -DNOSYSTIME and -D_POSIX_SOURCE in CFLAGS, however recent assessments don't display these to be indispensable.
  • in case you use gcc, or not it's a good idea to have a contemporary unencumber -- or later -- however gcc 2.6.three has been established to work with previous releases of Ghostscript. gcc types sooner than 2.6.three, and a couple of.7.* earlier than, are normal not to work. You may well be able to get a working executable with an older gcc by eliminating -O from CFLAGS.
  • Intergraph Clipper MIPS
  • there's interestingly a computer virus in older models of the MIPS C compiler which reasons gxdither.c to compile incorrectly if optimization is enabled (-O). despite the fact, this bug is truly fixed in MipsPRO C version 6.00; with this version, compiling with "-O2 -mips2" produces respectable output.
  • NCR 3550
  • With the NCR C development Toolkit you need to use -O0.
  • Pyramid MIServer-S

    See "AT&T 7040 R3".

    IBM RS/6000 with AIX Silicon portraits

    users have had lots of complications with the MIPSpro compilers on SGI techniques. We recommend the usage of gcc. if you do choose to use the MIPSpro compiler, please study right here cautiously.

  • To make the optimizer allocate adequate desk space, set

    CFLAGS="-Olimit 2500" (for older compilers)CFLAGS="-opt:Olimit=2500" (for more moderen compilers)

    MIPSpro compiler version three.19 is "older", and seven.1 is "more recent"; we don't seem to be bound at what point in between the latter syntax become added.

  • With the compiler shipped with Irix 5.2, use the -ansi option.
  • The SGI C compiler may additionally produce warnings about "Undefined the ANSI regular library defined macro stdin/stdout/stderr". To suppress these warnings, add "-woff 608" to the definition of CFLAGS.
  • The SGI C compiler shipped with Irix 6.1 and 6.2 will not assemble zlib/deflate.c competently with optimization. collect this file one after the other with out -O.
  • With IRIX 6.5.x and the MIPSpro 7.x compilers there have been studies about fallacious output and binaries that cause segmentation faults.  a considerable number of solutions have been advised and you may wish to are attempting them during this order, until you get a working binary:
  • sun
  • The solar unbundled C compiler (SC1.0) would not bring together Ghostscript effectively with the -fast choice: Ghostscript core-dumps in build_gs_font. With that compiler use -g, or use gcc as an alternative.
  • The solar version of dbx regularly gives up with an error message when making an attempt to load Ghostscript. If this happens, use GNU gdb as an alternative. (gdb is greater reputable than dbx in alternative ways as well.)
  • A worm in some models of zlib results in an undefined image zmemcmp when compiling with solar cc. Use gcc as an alternative.
  • SunOS
  • The tar application provided with SunOS 4.1.three might also now not be in a position to unpack the archives within the regular Ghostscript distribution. Get a extra recent version of tar, such as GNU tar.
  • In SunOS four.1.[23], you may also get undefined symbols _get_wmShellWidgetClass and _get_applicationShellWidgetClass when linking. Compiling "-Bstatic -lXmu -Bdynamic" looks to work for SC1.0. For gcc, try adding -static to CFLAGS. To resolve the difficulty if you're the use of OpenWindows 3.0 (X11R4-primarily based Xt), ask solar for patches 100512-02 and 100573-03.
  • Solaris VAX with Ultrix

    note: This section become contributed with the aid of a consumer: please email Hermann Ulrichsk�tter <ulrichsk@t-online.de> if in case you have questions or problems.

    here instructions are for building with emx 0.9d/Fix2. Be warned that with this edition of gcc/emx, compiler optimization flags '-O' or '-O1' will produce non-working output.

  • The imperative makefile is os2.mak The gcc/emx 0.9b (or later) compiler and IBM NMAKE.EXE are required.
  • For gcc/emx versions 0.9c and later, the LINK386 command have to consist of "$(COMPBASE)\lib\conclusion.lib"; version 0.9b requires omitting it. The latest os2.mak file does encompass this file within the LINK386 command, so when you are using 0.9b, delete this file reference before building.
  • be sure you are the usage of the average OS/2 shell, CMD.EXE. another shells have bugs or alterations that cause the makefile not to work.
  • be certain you followed the directions in "the way to unpack the supply code" and "how to unpack the third-party libraries".
  • Use jpegsrc_v6b.tar.gz, zlib.tar.gz and libpng-1.0.three.tar.gz. previous versions may additionally not work.
  • if you wish to include support for XFree86, edit the makefile to change BUILD_X11=0 to BUILD_X11=1. XFree86 for OS/2 can be bought from http://borneo.gmd.de/~veit/os2/xf86os2.html You should use emx 0.9d.
  • before compiling or linking, execute md bin and md obj in the gs listing to create the directories for the binaries.

    First, build the average configuration:

  • Edit gs/src/os2.mak: discover line with 'CO=-O' (Optimizer flag) and edit this line to 'CO=-O2' (-O or -O1 do not work!).
  • To delivery the make method, category nmake -f .\src\os2.mak, from the gs-listing.
  • One DLL and two EXEs might be produced in gs/bin: gsdll2.dll (the Ghostscript DLL), gsos2.exe (the Ghostscript executable) and gspmdrv.exe (the Presentation manager reveal driver). All other newly generated information will be produced in gs/obj.
  • Now, if you want, you can edit OS2.MAK to suit your needs, after which function nmake -f .\src\os2.mak clear after which nmake -f .\src\os2.mak.

    DEC C runtime library models 5.5 and more recent have an exit feature this is appropriate with all other C techniques, but some older ones don't. in case you get error messages from VMS when auxiliary classes such as genarch or echogs conclude executing, locate the road in stdpre.h that reads

    /*#outline OLD_VMS_C*/

    and take away the /* and */, changing it to

    #define OLD_VMS_C

    Some types of DEC's X server have bugs that produce huge bands of color the place dither patterns should appear, or characters displayed white on precise of black rectangles or now not displayed at all. If this happens, check with the utilization documentation for how to work around X server bugs the use of X materials; also file the issue to DEC, or whomever offered your X server.

    You may additionally also wish to flip off using a backing pixmap with Ghostscript, both to work around X server memory barriers or bugs, or to reap sooner showing on the cost of no redrawing when a Ghostscript window is restored from an icon or uncovered after being occluded by way of one more window. again, the usage documentation tells how to do that.

    you could precompile any classification 1 font into C, then collect and build it into Ghostscript, as described in the fonts documentation. if you do this, then add "$(PSD)ccfonts.dev" to FEATURE_DEVS in OPENVMS.MAK:

    $ FEATURE_DEVS = "$(PSD)psl3.dev $(PSD)pdf.dev $(PSD)dpsnext.dev $(PSD)ttfont.dev $(PSD)ccfonts.dev"

    Specify the font names with ccfonts1:

    $ ccfonts1 = "Courier Courier_Oblique Courier_Bold Courier_BoldOblique"

    If this makes the road too long, add one more line of the equal kind, similar to

    $ ccfonts1 = "Courier Courier_Oblique Courier_Bold Courier_BoldOblique" $ ccfonts2 = "Times_Roman Times_Italic Times_Bold Times_BoldItalic"

    constructing with GNU make on OpenVMS

    be aware: GNU make on OpenVMS curiously has bugs that make it stop with an error when building Ghostscript version 5.80 or later. unless further word, use MMS or MMK for building Ghostscript on OpenVMS. See below for details.

    As of Ghostscript edition 5.0 you can use GNU make -- with the file OPENVMS.MAK and a few auxiliary .COM information -- to construct Ghostscript on OpenVMS. Use the command:

    make -fopenvms.mak "DECWINDOWS=[1.2]"

    this is, specify both "1.2" or nothing (blank) because the value of DECWINDOWS. In Europe and different parts of the world the place ISO ordinary paper sizes are used, append "A4_PAPER=1" to that line to make A4 the default paper measurement at run time.

    if you have not a prebuilt reproduction of GNU make, you are going to have to construct it your self; as of version 3.seventy six (but no longer past) it is asserted to build properly below OpenVMS on both VAX and Alpha. The equipment is purchasable on the Free software basis's ftp site and its mirrors. See


    constructing with MMK or MMS on OpenVMS

    As of Ghostscript version 5.68 that you may use MMK or MMS to construct Ghostscript on OpenVMS. MMS is a utility accessible from Compaq (Digital); MMK is a free application generally appropriate with MMS.

    building Ghostscript with MMK or MMS uses the file OPENVMS.MMK and some auxiliary .COM information. To construct Ghostscript with MMK or MMS, use the command:


    the place ### is either mmk or mms.

    Specify DECWINDOWS1_2=1 for DECWINDOWS 1.2, DECWINDOWS1_2=0 for different DECWINDOWS models. In Europe and different elements of the area where ISO usual paper sizes are used, add ,"A4_PAPER=1" simply earlier than the final closing parenthesis to make A4 the default paper measurement at run time.

    To down load MMK (source code, and VAX and Alpha executables), visit


    Environments lacking multi-threading

    All environments outlined right here by identify have multi-threading capability. youngsters, in case your ambiance would not, which you can get rid of all want for multi-threading by means of setting SYNC=nosync in the exact-level makefile. be aware that you simply are usually not capable of use any so-called "async" drivers (drivers that overlap interpretation and rasterization) in case you do that. No such drivers are within the DEVICE_DEVS* lists of any makefile that Aladdin distributes.

    Plan 9

    Use unix-gcc.mak, editing it to define


    you will also doubtless should edit many path names.


    David J. Hawkey Jr. writes that he built Ghostscript 4.03 and 5.0 below QNX four.22, 4.23, and four.24 using Watcom C 10.6 and that "it really works reasonably well, after determining the /etc/config/lpsrvr directives, other than colour printing to my HP DeskJet some-quantity-or-a different". here is a concise presentation of changes according to the ones he made for Ghostscript four.03.

    unixansi.mak common strains    alternate to installation = installation -cINSTALL_PROGRAM = $(install) -m 755INSTALL_DATA = $(deploy) -m 644   installation = cpINSTALL_PROGRAM = $(install)INSTALL_DATA = $(deploy) datadir = $(prefix)/share   datadir = $(prefix)/lib CFLAGS_STANDARD=-O   CFLAGS_STANDARD=-Otx -zp1 -mf LDFLAGS=$(XLDFLAGS)   LDFLAGS=-mf -N32k $(XLDFLAGS) EXTRALIBS=   EXTRALIBS=-lXqnx_s -lsocket XINCLUDE=-I/usr/local/X/encompass   #XINCLUDE=-I/usr/native/X/consist of XLIBDIRS=-L/usr/local/X/libXLIBDIR=XLIBS=Xt Xext X11   #XLIBDIRS=-L/usr/local/X/lib#XLIBDIR=XLIBS=Xt_s Xext X11_s gp_unifs.c After the road

    #consist of <sys/param.h>

    add these strains:

    #if defined(__QNX__)#consist of <unix.h>#endif

    gp_unix.c After the road

    #encompass "time.h"

    add these lines:

    #if defined(__QNX__)#encompass <sys/time.h>#endif

    time_.h adjust the line starting

    #  if defined(Plan9) ||

    to start

    #  if described(__QNX__) || defined(Plan9) ||

    /and so forth/config/lpsrvr here is Hawkey's lpsrvr for example. # lpsrvr # # Defines the print queues and their contraptions # # Queues # ink-jet: Ghostscript interpreter for mono DeskJet - LaserJet works # greater than DeskJet! [ij-monops] ta=lpt1 co=/usr/local/bin/gs -q -sDEVICE=laserjet -sOutputFile=- -dNOPAUSE $(spfile) quit.ps | cat > $(device) # gadgets [-lpt1] dv=/dev/par1 [-lpt2] dv=/dev/par2

    Copyright © 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Aladdin businesses. All rights reserved.

    This file is part of Aladdin Ghostscript. See the Aladdin Free Public License (the "License") for full particulars of the phrases of the usage of, copying, modifying, and redistributing Aladdin Ghostscript.

    Ghostscript version 6.0, three February 2000

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    HP HP0-277 Exam (OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration) Detailed Information


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