|Exam Name||:||Certified Information Systems Security Professional|
|Questions and Answers||:||2377 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||December 12, 2017|
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encouraging the use of physical attributes that express ownership, the individual is more apt to protect and be aware in that environment The three main components of CPTED are: 1) natural access control - the guidance of people entering and leaving a space by the placement of doors, fences, lighting, and even landscaping 2) natural surveillance - the goal is make criminals feel uncomfortable by providing many ways observers could potentially see them 3) natural territorial reinforcement - creates physical designs that emphasize or extend the company's physical sphere of influence so users feel a sense of ownership of that space. The following answers are incorrect: Localized emissions is incorrect because it was a made up answer. Compromise of the perimeter is incorrect because territoriality is meant to protect the perimeter and the territory, not compromise it. Protecting specific areas with different measures is incorrect. Compartmentalized Areas would require specific protection to prevent intrusion. Territoriality deals with the protection of the entire facility and a sense of ownership, not the protection of a specific area only. The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: ISC2 Official Guide to the CiSSP exam, p455, Shon Harris, All in One Exam Guide, p344- 346 and AIO Version 5 (Shon Harris) page 411-412
In the physical security context, a security door equipped with an electronic lock configured to ignore the unlock signals sent from the building emergency access control system in the event of an issue (fire, intrusion, power failure) would be in which of the following configuration?
The context of this question is VERY important. As you can see, the question is in the Physical Security context where they make reference to a door electronic access control mechanism. In case of a power failure the door electronic lock would usually default to being unlocked which is called Fail Safe in the physical security context. This allow people to evacuate the building and make their way to a secure meeting point. If the signal is ignored the door will NOT become unlocked as it usually does. People may be trapped inside or they may be expected to remain inside to defend the facility, think of employment such as ambassy security or other high security environment where your job description include risking your live to defend the facility and its occupant. This is referred to as Fail Secure. Everything will remain locked and people would not evacuate
the facility. A synonym for Fail Secure is Fail Closed. Operations will be expected to ensure that fail-safe and fail-secure mechanisms are working correctly. While both are concerned with how a system behaves when it fails, they are often confused with each other. It is important for the security professional to distinguish between them: Fail-safe mechanisms focus on failing with a minimum of harm to personnel, facility, or systems. Fail-secure focuses on failing in a controlled manner to block access while the systems or facility is in an inconsistent state. For example, data center door systems will fail safe to ensure that personnel can escape the area when the electrical power fails. A fail- secure door would prevent personnel from using the door at all, which could put personnel in jeopardy. Fail-safe and fail-secure mechanisms will need to be maintained and tested on a regular basis to ensure that they are working as designed. The other answers presented were not correct choices. See some definitions below: Fail soft A system that experience a security issue would disable only the portion of the system being affected by the issue. The rest of the system would continue to function as expected. The component or service that failed would be isolated or protected from being abused. Fail Safe A fail-safe lock in the PHYSICAL security context will default to being unlocked in case of a power interruption. A fail-safe mechanisms in the LOGICAL security context will default to being locked in case of problems or issues. For example if you have a firewall and it cannot apply the policy properly, it will default to NO access and all will be locked not allowing any packet to flow through without being inspected. Fail open A Fail Open mean that the mechanism will default to being unlocked in case of a failure or problem. This is very insecure. If you have a door access control mechanism that fail open then it means that the door would be unlocked and anyone could get through. A logical security mechanism would grant access and there would be no access control in place. Fail closed A Fail closed mechanism will default to being locked in case of a failure or problem. That would be a lot more secure than Fail Open for a logical access control mechanism. Fail secure A fail-secure in the logical or physical security context will default to being locked in case of a power interruption or a service that is not functioning properly. Nobody could exit the building and nobody would be able to come in either. In case of the logical context there is no access granted and everything is locked. The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 20247-20251). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
Which of the following is a NOT a guideline necessary to enhance security in the critical Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) aspect of facility operations?
Restrict access to main air intake points to persons who have a work-related reason to be there
Maintain access rosters of maintenance personnel who are not authorized to work on the system
Escort all contractors with access to the system while on site
Ensure that all air intake points are adequately secured with locking devices
This is a DETAIL oriented question. While you may not know the answer to such questions, look for things that just do not seem logical. As far as the exam is concerned, there will be negative questions, most people will trip and miss the NOT keyword because they are reading too fast. In this case, by changing just a few key words, a correct answer becomes a wrong one. The book has "Maintain access rosters of pre- approved maintenance personnel authorized to work on the system" While you can theoretically keep rosters of people you don't want to work on the system, this not not really practical. A much better approach is to keep a list of those who ARE approved. HVAC is commonly overlooked from a physical security standpoint. From the ISC2 guide "Over the past several years there has been an increasing awareness dealing with anthrax and airborne attacks. Harmful agents introduced into the HVAC systems can rapidly spread throughout the structure and infect all persons exposed to the circulated air." On a practical real world note; for those who work in smaller shops without a dedicated maintenance team, where you have to outsource. It would be wise to make sure that NO ONE has access other than when you call them for service. If a maintenance technician shows up on your doorstep wanting access so they can service the equipment, CALL your vendors MAIN line using the number that YOU have and
verify that they sent someone out. Don't take the technicians word for it, or you may just
become a victim of social engineering. The following answers are incorrect: Restrict access to main air intake points to persons who have a work-related reason to be there Escort all contractors with access to the system while on site Ensure that all air intake points are adequately secured with locking devices The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: Tipton, Harold F. (2010-04-20). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Second Edition ((ISC)2 Press), Chapter 8, Physical and Enviromental Security "Enviromental Controls, HVAC"
Which of the following type of lock uses a numeric keypad or dial to gain entry?
Bolting door locks
Electronic door lock
Biometric door lock
The combination door lock or cipher lock uses a numeric key pad, push button, or dial to gain entry, it is often seen at airport gate entry doors and smaller server rooms. The combination should be changed at regular interval or whenever an employee with access is transferred, fired or subject to disciplinary action. This reduces risk of the combination being known by unauthorized people. A cipher lock, is controlled by a mechanical key pad, typically 5 to 10 digits that when pushed in the right combination the lock will releases and allows entry. The drawback is someone looking over a shoulder can see the combination. However, an electric version of the cipher lock is in production in which a display screen will automatically move the numbers around, so if someone is trying to watch the movement on the screen they will not be able to identify the number indicated unless they are standing directly behind the victim. Remember locking devices are only as good as the wall or door that they are mounted in and if the frame of the door or the door itself can be easily destroyed then the lock will not be effective. A lock will eventually be defeated and its primary purpose is to delay the attacker. For your exam you should know below types of lock Bolting door lock â€“ These locks required the traditional metal key to gain entry. The key should be stamped â€śdo not duplicateâ€ť and should be stored and issued under strict management control. Biometric door lock â€“ An individual's unique physical attribute such as voice, retina, fingerprint, hand geometry or signature, activate these locks. This system is used in instances when sensitive facilities must be protected such as in the military. Electronic door lock â€“ This system uses a magnetic or embedded chip based plastic card key or
token entered into a sensor reader to gain access. A special code internally stored in the
card or token is read by sensor device that then activates the door locking mechanism. The following were incorrect answers: Bolting door lock â€“ These locks required the traditional metal key to gain entry. The key should be stamped â€śdo not duplicateâ€ť and should be stored and issued under strict management control. Biometric door lock â€“ An individual's unique body features such as voice, retina, fingerprint,, hand geometry or signature, activate these locks. This system is used in instances when extremely sensitive facilities must be protected such as in the military. Electronic door lock â€“ This system uses a magnetic or embedded chip based plastic card key or token entered into a sensor reader to gain access. A special code internally stored in the card or token is read by sensor device that then activates the door locking mechanism. Following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: CISA review manual 2014 Page number 376 and Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 25144-25150). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
Which of the following biometrics methods provides the HIGHEST accuracy and is LEAST accepted by users?
Retina based biometric involves analyzing the layer of blood vessels situated at the back of the eye. An established technology, this technique involves using a low-intensity light source through an optical coupler to scan the unique patterns of the retina. Retinal scanning can be quite accurate but does require the user to look into a receptacle and focus on a given point. This is not particularly convenient if you wear glasses or are concerned about having close contact with the reading device. For these reasons, retinal scanning is not warmly accepted by all users, even though the technology itself can work well. For your exam you should know the information below: Biometrics Biometrics verifies an individualâ€™s identity by analyzing a unique personal attribute or behavior, which is one of the most effective and accurate methods of verifying identification and not well received by society. Biometrics is a very sophisticated technology; thus, it is much more expensive and complex than the other types of identity verification processes. A biometric system can make authentication decisions based on
an individualâ€™s behavior, as in signature dynamics, but these can change over time and
possibly be forged. Biometric systems that base authentication decisions on physical attributes (such as iris, retina, or fingerprint) provide more accuracy because physical attributes typically donâ€™t change, absent some disfiguring injury, and are harder to impersonate Biometrics is typically broken up into two different categories. The first is the physiological. These are traits that are physical attributes unique to a specific individual. Fingerprints are a common example of a physiological trait used in biometric systems. The second category of biometrics is known as behavioral. The behavioral authentication is also known as continuous authentication. The behavioral/continuous authentication prevents session hijacking attack. This is based on a characteristic of an individual to confirm his identity. An example is signature Dynamics. Physiological is â€śwhat you areâ€ť and behavioral is â€śwhat you do.â€ť When a biometric system rejects an authorized individual, it is called a Type I error (false rejection rate). When the system accepts impostors who should be rejected, it is called a Type II error (false acceptance rate). The goal is to obtain low numbers for each type of error, but Type II errors are the most dangerous and thus the most important to avoid. When comparing different biometric systems, many different variables are used, but one of the most important metrics is the crossover error rate (CER). This rating is stated as a percentage and
represents the point at which the false rejection rate equals the false acceptance rate. This rating is the most important measurement when determining the systemâ€™s accuracy. A biometric system that delivers a CER of 3 will be more accurate than a system that delivers a CER of 4. Crossover error rate (CER) is also called equal error rate (EER). Throughput describes the process of authenticating to a biometric system. This is also referred to as the biometric system response time. The primary consideration that should be put into the purchasing and implementation of biometric access control are user acceptance, accuracy and processing speed. Biometric Considerations In addition to the access control elements of a biometric system, there are several other considerations that are important to the integrity of the control environment. These are: Resistance to counterfeiting Data storage requirements User acceptance Reliability and Target User and approach Fingerprint Fingerprints are made up of ridge endings and bifurcations exhibited by friction ridges and other detailed characteristics called minutiae. It is the distinctiveness of these minutiae that gives each individual a unique fingerprint. An individual places his finger on a device that reads the details of the fingerprint and compares this to a reference file. If the two match, the individualâ€™s identity has been verified. Palm Scan The palm holds a wealth of information and has many aspects that are used to identify an individual. The palm has creases, ridges, and grooves throughout that are unique to a specific person. The palm scan also includes the fingerprints of each finger. An individual places his hand on the biometric device, which scans and captures this information. This information is compared to a reference file, and the identity is either verified or rejected. Hand Geometry The shape of a personâ€™s hand (the shape, length, and width of the hand and fingers) defines hand geometry. This trait differs significantly between people and is used in some biometric systems to verify identity. A person places her hand on a device that has grooves for each finger. The system compares the geometry of each finger, and the hand as a whole, to the information in a reference file to verify that personâ€™s identity. Retina Scan A system that reads a personâ€™s retina scans the blood-vessel pattern of the retina on the backside of the eyeball. This pattern has shown to be extremely unique between different people. A camera is used to project a beam inside the eye and capture the pattern and compare it to a reference file recorded previously. Iris Scan An iris scan is a passive biometric control The iris is the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. The iris has unique patterns, rifts, colors, rings, coronas, and furrows. The uniqueness of each of these characteristics within the iris is captured by a camera and compared with the information gathered during the enrollment phase. When using an iris pattern biometric system, the optical unit must be positioned so the sun does not shine into the aperture; thus, when implemented, it must have proper placement within the facility. Signature Dynamics When a person signs a signature, usually they do so in the same manner and speed each time. Signing a signature produces electrical signals that can be captured by a biometric system. The physical motions performed when someone is signing a document create these electrical signals. The signals provide unique characteristics that can be used to distinguish one individual from another. Signature dynamics provides more information than a static signature, so there are more variables to verify when confirming an individualâ€™s identity and more assurance that this person is who he claims to be.
Keystroke Dynamics Whereas signature dynamics is a method that captures the electrical signals when a person signs a name, keystroke dynamics captures electrical signals when a person types a certain phrase. As a person types a specified phrase, the biometric system captures the speed and motions of this action. Each individual has a certain style and speed, which translate into unique signals. This type of authentication is more effective than typing in a password, because a password is easily obtainable. It is much harder to repeat a personâ€™s typing style than it is to acquire a password. Voice Print Peopleâ€™s speech sounds and patterns have many subtle distinguishing differences. A biometric system that is programmed to capture a voice print and compare it to the information held in a reference file can differentiate one individual from another. During the enrollment process, an individual is asked to say several different words. Facial Scan A system that scans a personâ€™s face takes many attributes and characteristics into account. People have different bone structures, nose ridges, eye widths, forehead sizes, and chin shapes. These are all captured during a facial scan and compared to an earlier captured scan held within a reference record. If the information is a match, the person is positively identified. Hand Topography Whereas hand geometry looks at the size and width of an individualâ€™s hand and fingers, hand topology looks at the different peaks and valleys of the hand, along with its overall shape and curvature. When an individual wants to be authenticated, she places her hand on the system. Off to one side of the system, a camera snaps a side-view picture of the hand from a different view and angle than that of systems that target hand geometry, and thus captures different data. This attribute is not unique enough to authenticate individuals by itself and is commonly used in conjunction with hand geometry. Vascular Scan Valcular Scan uses the blood vessel under the first layer of skin. The following answers are incorrect: Fingerprint - Fingerprints are made up of ridge endings and bifurcations exhibited by friction ridges and other detailed characteristics called minutiae. It is the distinctiveness of these minutiae that gives each individual a unique fingerprint. An individual places his finger on a device that reads the details of the fingerprint and compares this to a reference file. If the two match, the individualâ€™s identity has been verified. Hand Geometry - The shape of a personâ€™s hand (the shape, length, and width of the hand and fingers) defines hand geometry. This trait differs significantly between people and is used in some biometric systems to verify identity. A person places her hand on a device that has grooves for each finger. The system compares the geometry of each finger, and the hand as a whole, to the information in a reference file to verify that personâ€™s identity. Palm Scan - The palm holds a wealth of information and has many aspects that are used to identify an individual. The palm has creases, ridges, and grooves throughout that are unique to a specific person. The palm scan also includes the fingerprints of each finger. An individual places his hand on the biometric device, which scans and captures this information. This information is compared to a reference file, and the identity is either verified or rejected. Following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: CISA review manual 2014 Page number 330 and 331 Official ISC2 guide to CISSP CBK 3rd Edition Page number 924
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This quiz is excerpted from CISSP practice checks, 2nd version with the aid of Shon Harris (McGraw-Hill Osborne Media; 2013) with permission from McGraw-Hill. each and every question is taken from a different area featured within the booklet. To examine an excerpt from Chapter 1 of its accomplice book, CISSP All-in-One examination ebook, Sixth edition, additionally with the aid of Shon Harris, consult with our chapter excerpt page.
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1.Â CISSP All-in-One examination e book, 6th edition by Shon Harris
here is the best CISSP certification ebook you'll need to flow the exam. everything is lined in the abundant amount of aspect and is awfully neatly-defined even for those that may well be Â unfamiliar with expertise and all the domains.Â It additionally offers notable examples and astonishing eventualities of diverse security ideas.
2.Â CISSP follow checks, 2d edition by way of Shon Harris
This CISSP certification book is a great solution to prepare. you are going to thoroughly relish analyzing the justification it makes for each and every of the answers and why a particular choice is correct or incorrect. It definitely drives home the defining factors and pinpoint what you deserve to go focus on and study CISSP, which isÂ is essential for exam practise.
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3.Â CISSP: certified tips programs protection knowledgeable study CISSP book with the aid of James M. Stewart, Mike Chapple and Darril Gibson
Itâ€™s smartly structured, concise, and simple to observe,Â with sufficient advice to get you to your solution to becoming a CISSP.Â The authors of this CISSP certification publication do a phenomenal job in organizing the CBKs.Â This booklet is mind-blowing fabric for discussing the issues that be sure you understand!
4.Â CISSP For Dummies through Miller and Peter Gregory
A rewarding reference, this CISSP certification book gives a thorough overview of the ordinary body of competencies (CBK). Â ItÂ presents a pretty good balance between depth and breath, and it refrains from getting bogged down by way of minutia like another examine guides. ItÂ additionally comprises a 250-query follow verify which may give you a comparatively good feel for the way likely you're to circulate the exam.
5.Â reputable (ISC)2 book to the CISSP CBK, 2d edition ((ISC)2 Press) with the aid of Steven Hernandez CISSP
The standard reference, this CISSP certification publication contains reasonably-priced explanations of technical ideas, security-linked principles, and legal guidelines. It items the fabric in a really logical and direct manner. The highlights and sample questions are akin to those supplied within the exam, which is extraordinarily beneficial when getting read CISSPy for the genuine look at various.
6.Â CISSP All-in-One examination e-book, Fifth edition by way of Shon Harris
This CISSP certification book flows like a dialog. Shon Harris, the creator, did a superb job of gathering the entire assistance domains necessary for CISSP and discussing them in a less formal and infrequently humorous method, as an alternative of constantly inundating you with facts such as you are a pc.Â The true world analogies blanketed to explain procedures are also spot on.
7.Â Eleventh Hour CISSP: analyze e-book (Syngress Eleventh Hour) via Eric Conrad, Seth Misenar and Joshua Feldman
This CISSP certification e-book is neatly-suitable for a a good overview a number of days after weeks or months of study CISSPing or as 24-48 hour review earlier than your examination. The authors do a good job of keeping apart the obligatory key suggestions from the CBK for the examination, and that they donâ€™t waste your time with prolonged explanations.
eight.Â CISSP exam Cram (3rd edition) via Michael Gregg
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Any of those CISSP certification books can be critical in examine prep and helping you flow that complicated CISSP verify, even for your first try! Which of these books have you ever discovered most beneficial? leave me a comment under and let me comprehend.