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200-309 - Administration of Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange - Dump Information

Vendor : Symantec
Exam Code : 200-309
Exam Name : Administration of Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange
Questions and Answers : 97 Q & A
Updated On : December 13, 2017
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200-309 Questions and Answers

200-309

Reference:


QUESTION 87

When using a fault-tolerant Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange (EV 9) environment, what is required on every EV 9 server?


  1. Admin service and Web Access Application

  2. Admin service and Indexing service

  3. Directory Service and Storage service

  4. Directory Service and Web Access Application


Correct Answer: D


Reference: QUESTION 88

A Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange administrator performs a "Run Now" against a single mailbox in Archiving and Shortcut Processing mode. How can the administrator determine whether the run has completed?


  1. monitor the Reports folder for the archiving report

  2. monitor MSMQ queues

  3. monitor the Enterprise Vault Event Log for the completion event

  4. monitor the CPU usage for ArchiveTask.exe using task manager


Correct Answer: B


Reference: QUESTION 89

A company is running Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange (EV 9) using thin provisioning on the disk drives that hold Index locations. The low disk space indicator for the Index drive is causing EV 9 archiving to stop when the threshold has been reached. The administrator needs to change the EV 9 configuration so that it stops displaying alerts for low disk space on the Index drive. Which EV 9 service should the administrator modify to stop reporting the disk space?


  1. Index service

  2. Storage service

  3. Admin service

  4. Directory service


Correct Answer: C


Reference: QUESTION 90

A large organization is Journaling from Exchange 2010. They receive an alert that a journal mailbox targeted by Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange has a backlog of 300,000 items. An administrator notices that

the backup procedures have been failing and the system was left in backup mode for the weekend. After taking the system out of backup mode, the administrator restarts the Journal Task but the items still remain in the journal mailbox. What should the administrator do?


  1. purge the MSMQ journal queues and restart the task

  2. wait for the Journal Task to fully scan the mailbox, it may take some time to start processing

  3. create a new journal mailbox and move items from the backlogged mailbox in chunks

  4. save the contents of the journal mailbox to a PST and use the Import PST Wizard


Correct Answer: B


Reference: QUESTION 91

An organization has deployed Virtual Vault to allow end users to access their archive from Outlook without using shortcuts. After items are archived, one user reports that recently archived items are missing from Virtual Vault. What is a likely cause of this issue?


  1. The cache location on the Enterprise Vault server is full.

  2. The user has disabled Exchange cached mode in Outlook.

  3. Content Cache synchronization needs to complete.

  4. Metadata Cache synchronization needs to complete.


Correct Answer: D


Reference: QUESTION 92

Users are unable to access archived email. After checking the Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange (EV

9) server, the administrator notices that all EV 9 services are stopped. Which two can cause the EV 9 services to stop? (Select two.)


  1. The license has expired.

  2. Too many errors are encountered in a short period of time.

  3. There is insufficient free space on the system disk.

  4. The Enterprise Vault log is full.

  5. An incompatible version of Outlook is installed.


Correct Answer: BC


Reference: QUESTION 93

A customer is installing Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange (EV 9) in an environment with a Windows 2008 Domain Controller. What must the customer do?

  1. create a new registry key to remove NSPI connection limits so that EV 9 archiving tasks do not fail

  2. upgrade their Internet Information Services (IIS) to version 7.0 so that delegate access to features can be 10controlled

  3. downgrade their Internet Protocol version to 4 (IPv4) so that Outlook Web Access can run more efficiently

  4. set the registry key called 'EVEventlogFull' to 0 to remove log limits


Correct Answer: A


Reference: QUESTION 94

Refer to the exhibit.


A customer environment consists of three geographically dispersed sites. In each site a local Exchange Server is deployed. Bandwidth is more than adequate between the London headquarters and the second site in Helsinki, but between the London headquarters and the third site in Dublin, bandwidth is constrained. The amount of data to be archived in the second site is minimal, but the third site has several terabytes of PST files. Which Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange architecture should be proposed?


Exhibit:


  1. centralized

  2. decentralized

  3. federated

  4. hybrid

Correct Answer: D


Reference: QUESTION 95

According to Symantec best practices, what is the first step the administrator should take when attempting to fix a failed or offline index volume?


  1. Update an Index

  2. Repair an Index

  3. Rebuild Index

  4. Reconcile Index


Correct Answer: A


Reference: QUESTION 96

According to Enterprise Vault indexing best practices, one of two configuration steps should be performed when index volumes are stored on a Network Attached Storage (NAS) device or on a remote windows share. What are the two configuration steps? (Select two.)


  1. disable Opportunistic locks from being granted through the remote server's registry or on the NAS device

  2. disable Opportunistic locks from being requested through the vault server's registry

  3. disable Opportunistic locks on the vault server through adsiedit.exe

  4. enable Opportunistic locks to be requested through the remote server's registry

  5. enable Opportunistic locks to be granted through the vault server's registry


Correct Answer: AB


Reference: QUESTION 97

An organization requires that Exchange email be archived. They need to provide users with the ability to search archived mail content and attachments while using the least amount of space.

How is this accomplished?


  1. Indexing level must be set to Medium.

  2. A Vault Store must be configured with Medium indexing.

  3. A Vault Store must be configured with Full indexing.

  4. Indexing level must be set to Brief.


Correct Answer: A

R Bettnce:


Symantec 200-309 Exam (Administration of Symantec Enterprise Vault 9 for Exchange) Detailed Information

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Symantec 200-309

200-309 exam :: Article by ArticleForgeJOB/SCAN offers automated JCL administration to OS/390 and z/OS EnvironmentsIBM United StatesSoftware Announcement 202-122May 28, 2002

(Corrected on June 21, 2002)

alterations were made to the Ordering tips and costs sections.

At a look

JOB/SCAN permits clients to:

  • catch and correct JCL blunders earlier than they become a production problem — casting off construction failures
  • Standardize the structure and content of all JCL within the information center — enormously reducing the JCL upkeep effort and enabling the automation of a number of services
  • Automate hobbies changes required for moving jobs into construction
  • Overview

    JOB/SCAN is a wide-spread 200-309 automatic JCL administration product for the OS/390® and z/OS™ environments. JOB/SCAN addresses the error detection and prevention, standardization, and programmed JCL trade wants of statistics centers the place JCL-linked outages don't seem to be tolerated for mission-essential purposes.

    The product during this announcement is obtainable as a part of the IBM Developer income Channel utility Remarketing program. Product information has been offered by means of the software organization, varied utility methods, Inc.

    Key necessities

    OS/390 or z/OS

    Availability Date

    may 28, 2002

    Description

    JOB/SCAN allows records processing specialists to take a pro-lively strategy towards solving JCL-linked issues. JOB/SCAN is used to prevent JCL mistakes before they become an issue, as adversarial to fixing blunders after they have happened.

    In its function as a problem prevention tool, JOB/SCAN helps four primary JCL management activities:

    JCL Validation

    JOB/SCAN read 200-309s an entire JCL job circulation, then:

  • Resolves backward references
  • Substitutes symbolics
  • Applies overrides
  • Evaluates each and every commentary for correctness in keeping with syntax suggestions
  • during this procedure, the specific execution atmosphere is simulated. JOB/SCAN detects syntax, run-time, SMS, IDCAMS, IMS™, DB2®, and other error that could cause issues.

    JCL standards

    JOB/SCAN provides a good components of automating and implementing web site certain JCL necessities, reminiscent of:

  • Naming conventions
  • area allocation restrictions
  • Job type usage
  • The JOB/SCAN extended message function offers the ability of putting your web page standards guide online.

    JCL alternate

    JOB/SCAN gives a good and constant formula of applying JCL alterations to a complete JCL library or a subset of library participants. it's a constructive device for conversions, corresponding to:

  • SMS
  • New naming conventions
  • Consolidations
  • construction turnover
  • alterations, additions, and deletions can be world or in response to conditions targeted by means of the user. The JCL change facility is sensitive to the person to make very concentrated, deliberate, and precise alterations while conserving the integrity of JCL. The JCL exchange facility is additionally used to make hobbies conversions to JCL all through the move-to-construction system.

    JCL Reformatter

    JOB/SCAN offers a simple to make use of JCL reformatting capability, which makes JCL less difficult to examine. It realigns JCL parameters in order that all JCL is formatted at all times.

    emblems

      z/OS and IMS are emblems of international business Machines supplier within the u.s. or other countries or both.   OS/390 and DB2 are registered emblems of overseas enterprise Machines employer within the u.s. or different nations or each.   different business, product, and repair names may well be emblems or carrier marks of others. Technical assistance

    simple trade: cross trade

    Hardware necessities Processor Any S/390(R) or zSeries capable of aiding OS/390(R) or z/OS(TM) utility requirements operating system OS/390 or z/OS aid

    training and education: consumer working towards and education, custom-made and priced to every certain requirement, is purchasable in the course of the software organization.

    On-web site installing: On-web site setting up and application interface features can be found throughout the application organization.

    software aid: JOB/SCAN utility contains a defect warranty during the application organisation.

    Packaging: The products are packaged on a 3480 cartridge with a full set of softcopy documentation. Media and documentation CD ship from the application business enterprise.

    Ordering counsel New Licenses

    Orders for brand spanking new licenses will now be accepted and scheduled for cargo via the application enterprise. The different application techniques, Inc. Perpetual License contract have to be signed by way of the consumer and permitted by varied application methods, Inc. in advance of product shipment.

    To order a basic license, specify the program quantity, function quantity 9001 for asset registration, and the one-time charge (OTC) function and the favored amount akin to the variety of copies. additionally, specify the feature variety of the preferred distribution medium.

    price instruments: This product is bought in accordance with value devices. The amount of value instruments to be ordered depends on converting MIPS to price gadgets. check with the program organization for the suitable conversion of MIPS to cost devices. The conversion from MIPS to price devices makes use of the table proven under. assess the whole variety of MIPS to be licensed and then multiply it times the value Unit Conversion component from the table for the variety of MIPS. around the answer to the closest total number. The outcome is the number of value units to be ordered.

    cost Unit utilization minimum maximum Conversion degree MIPS MIPS factor 1 1 199 1.00 2 200 309 0.640 3 310 349 0.496 4 350 449 0.452 5 450 599 0.432 6 600 799 0.388 7 800 999 0.344 8 one thousand 1199 0.300 9 1200 3800 0.260

    Some examples of conversion from MIPS to price contraptions:

  • system with 150 MIPS: one hundred fifty MIPS x 1.00 = 150 cost devices
  • device with 500 MIPS: 500 MIPS x 0.432 = 216 price instruments
  • equipment with 950 MIPS: 950 MIPS x 0.344 = 326.eight, rounded to 327 cost units
  • extra skill is calculated by selecting the brand new complete MIP ability and multiplying the additional MIPS requirement to be licensed by the cost Unit Conversion factor for the new total MIPS capacity. The resulting price instruments quantity, rounded to the nearest total quantity, is the amount to be ordered to raise the full means.

    as an instance, if a client is currently licensed for 800 MIPS and is including an additional 200 MIPS, for a complete MIPS ability of one thousand MIPS, the calculation can be:

    200 MIPS x 0.300 = 60 price instruments

    In a second instance, a client at present licensed for one hundred eighty MIPS who desires to add 500 MIPS, for a total MIPS skill of 680 MIPS, would order:

    500 MIPS x 0.388 = 194 price instruments

    Product support: Product assist for the first year is protected within the purchase fee of the product. Product help entitles purchasers to defect help, product updates, enhancements, enhancements, new releases and extended assurance assist as described within the diverse application methods, Inc. License contract. software guide for the 2d and subsequent years is purchasable without delay from the application company, diverse application systems, Inc., on the then-current quotes. Billing for help for the 2d and subsequent years is achieved by way of diverse application methods, Inc.

    OTC software feature program name quantity quantity JOB/SCAN value Unit 5620-FIB 0578

    instance 1: To order JOB/SCAN for a 300 MIP device, with the product to ship on a 3480 tape cartridge, convert to price units (300 MIPS x 0.640 cost Unit Conversion factor = 192), and specify:

    JOB/SCAN (5620-FIB) characteristic number 0578 volume 192 feature quantity 5862 Media feature number 9001 Asset registration

    illustration 2: to add extra means of 200 MIPS to the device described in illustration 1, for a brand new total of 500 MIPS, convert to value units (200 MIPS x 0.432 cost Unit Conversion component = 86.4, rounded to 86), and specify:

    JOB/SCAN (5620-FIB) characteristic quantity 0578 volume 86 feature quantity 5862 Media function number 9001 Asset registration

    basic computer-read 200-309able cloth: To order, select the feature variety of the desired distribution media:

    feature environment quantity Media class All 5862 3480 tape cartridge phrases and conditions

    Licensing: items introduced below this announcement are licensed and allotted via the program service provider. with the exception of billing and fee terms, terms and prerequisites are as provided with the aid of the application organisation.

    The IBM client agreement (ICA) must be in effect.

    The utility is licensed to conclusion users for a one-time licensing charge for their exclusive use. They can't promote it, switch it, or in any other case make it attainable to some other entity.

    costs: costs listed and fee phrases are as offered with the aid of IBM. expenditures are offered for reference only and are field to exchange with out notice.

    Pricing Allowance: products are not eligible for quantity, academic, or other discounts.

    Disclaimer of assurance: The counsel in this doc regarding non-IBM products was received from the software enterprise or from their posted bulletins. IBM has now not proven the application organisation's products and cannot verify the accuracy of efficiency, compatibility, or every other claims involving the program employer's items. questions about the capabilities of the software supplier items should still be addressed to the program service provider.

    The program employer products are not warranted via IBM. guarantee, if any, is as provided by means of the application organisation. IBM makes no warranties, specific or implied, together with, but no longer confined to, the implied warranties of merchantability and health for a selected intention. address any questions concerning warranty to the software agency.

    Trial length: No trial duration is accessible for the program employer items.

    test duration: No examine length is obtainable for the application company items.

    Technical counsel: Technical tips, installing, and usage help, if any, are as supplied through the application company.

    application functions: program services, if any, are as offered by the software agency.

    prices

    costs are provided for reference handiest and are subject to exchange with out be aware.

    right here reflects the price per value Unit. For guidance on ordering diverse price contraptions consult with the Ordering suggestions area.

    program name OTC JOB/SCAN value Unit (5620-FIB) $250

    OTC: consumers who pay an OTC and a present application aid settlement for an authorized program receive enhancements and future releases, if any, at no additional charge. significant new function can be provided as an optional characteristic and charged for separately. If a alternative program is introduced and the customer elects to license the substitute application for an OTC and change the prior application, an improve can charge can also practice.

    trademarks

      z/OS is a trademark of overseas business Machines enterprise in the united states or different nations or both.   S/390 and OS/390 are registered trademarks of foreign enterprise Machines supplier within the u.s. or different countries or each.   zSeries is a trademark of overseas business Machines organization.   different enterprise, product, and service names may well be logos or provider marks of others.
    examination 01 Key no first - I. (25 pts complete: 2.5 features each)...

    Unformatted text preview: I. (25 pts total: 2.5 features each) actual/False. Classify each and every statement as true or False. No clarification is required. A. An actual differential may also be written for any characteristic. Faust “’ OnLg Que stale 5m B. a favorable Joule-Thomson coefficient implies the predominant MS within the gas are desirable forces. “FM, @EUk C. Isotherms derived from the most appropriate fuel legislation can have inflection features (crucial features). Fag/$15 P~'/V W M? Mica? pls, D. CV and Cp are in reality temperature dependent capabilities. TFUUL E. The isothermal compression of a great gasoline is endothermic. FM*W is mama be 890, F. The common state for thermodynamic table information is at p = 1 atm and T: 25°C. Faisava P11bax+ MT, G. The Joule-Thomson experiment is an isothermal process. web page — 0m 15mth Wm H. Mechanical equilibrium happens when two objects have the equal inner energy. Palm — sow P’WJAu/Lz. I. Supercritical C02 can be used to decaffeinate coffee. [me J. Linde Refrigeration can be used to liquefy any gas. FCdD—QF—Nbi H6 UL HZ Cv‘ 3R 2. (25 pts) Thermodynamic Processes: 1 mole of a non-linear ideal gas undergoes the cyclic process shown below: (35002.! d Cons. ' 4/“ —\- 4 / cm C ’T 1 H D b o _ D 100 200 309 480 500 600 K Tlin K) A. (24 pts) Complete the following table. Report all answers in J. _ _. AU; nc, m M: ncr AT g v_v d_U gu @ ggv End ofSteQa ‘1583113 rgv‘mkm“ 1,583.05 “moqu-Ll Q Cans? EndofSteQb ],l9(42.°l ~96?” 1.251.one hundred fifteen ngégpl @ (Luigi/Ci? conclusion ofStch . three lg 255.31? a 1%“: " end ofSte d I 9 ‘ z“ 9 4094.: 2r 'TquJQ W W it: an OJA'JJVMOQ C->cl Uuzw irreversible / é—flou we? W W lifluw stiblel ; B. (1 pt) The efliciency (s) of method can also be defined as e = q‘“ I. Qapplied compute the efficiency of this process. Q ~ (pawn: ' news + masssww . Use your outcomes from above to I VC: W: ‘ 3. (25 pts) exact Differentials. Dr. Rowland has invented a new state characteristic, the Rowland power (R), which can also be considered as a characteristic of extent and pressure, it truly is R(V, p)- A. (6 pts) supply the actual diflerential for R(V, p). 3R; (iiinciw ( 35% AP B. (7 pts) Use your outcome from half A above to derive an expression for (ii—T) . V C. (5 pts) follow Euler’s rule to R(V, p). give the value of the derivative n) in phrases . 6v , . 0‘ I" R 7 of the different two derivatives. 5/ 5 Vt (:0 S a gag 3M 22 ,\ ' (9v)P(9PR BR V (av. , s. a!) 22.9 a? ’ aflpvaP v D. (7 pts) A gas is taken from preliminary conditions p,- = 1 atm, V; = 10 L to final conditions . . . an _ @= 10 atm, @ 0.5 L. Dr. Rowland has determmed that the derivative (EL — 10.5 atm and the by-product (2—2) = 0.25 L for the gas beneath these conditions. Assuming v n... nnnnnnnnnnn nnn and V, nnnnnnn nnn .nnnn ofAR in .n. A9= (%indP * (35%)Pdv N1?— (0519,) 0am * 00.5 aimiLOSL—WL) m, a 411.5 Lan 4,3761 ,mfl :. four. (25 pts) Non-optimal Equations of State. here equation of state will also be used to mannequin non-premiere fuel conduct in the low power limit: _ nRT p _ (V — nb) A. (5 pts) Derive an expression for the reversible, isothermal work performed through this fuel. W = J U? cw Mr. Macaw WNW“ Pew; W603) Ur CIA- ' B. (5 pts enve an expressron or ‘ '- . - ssure (nT) forthis fuel. T : Tlé-iJV—P ' (gill = Eli.) “television “RT/m a2 C. (5 pts) the usage of the expression you received for inner force above i expression for the inside energy trade for this gasoline. You can also assu All: (ecu/9T 2v AT)” WT dV I5 T-J‘nc). C V TT :Q I Au: nl—ékyyr D. (5 pts) Derive an expression for the isothermal Joule coefficient (in) for this equation of state. 2 V: Déj‘lvnb a: domestic) (21') or P D _M .— m 8T P E. (5 pts) using the expression you acquired for the isothermal Joule coefficient abov 'n part D, write an expression for the enthalpy trade for this fuel. You may additionally assumé E; = @4115 ’T int), C” J“ (three%?)de (114:1ng . , CF ALT:HB(%AW [0039110 moles H20 l‘fig/mol 5. (25 pts) Thermochemistry. The following chemical reaction describes the conversion of 100 g of liquid water into water vapor. Chemical data can be found in the Useful Information section. You ma treat the water va or as an ideal as. H20“) 9 H20(g) A. (3 pts) AHW, for the reaction at T: 250C, p = 1 atm. Report in k]. Allan =EWW‘10‘three) ’ E998 “0:01er Allan 1 EZHLW— kl/mol " (435.33 ‘47me 5,556 moles Allan: QLWI 59 ‘53 B. (6 pts) AH,“ or e reaction . = 100C,p= 1 atm. document in k]. AH?Xn(TL) :- £Tl ) 4. n “:3 h? A Hm (100°C) : 9W5 z a: l— (5550 Mo\)(.03%fifty eight erUfi’ZQl my (flak) [Mm l 00°C 2 39?. IL m C. (6 pts) AUm, for the reaction at T = 25°C, p = 1 atm. Report in H. You may assume the process is carried out at constant pressure. m _ \ 00 g mum = Mm - pm/ Wow 5 F ‘ arms/ML All/am = QLILIBQZ M —-llo+vnlU3(oL"0-l003‘-) V mu (5 55b[o:§12(g% I57 ‘@ g—‘h—l : , ,0 : com/m to LL) 9°° “P” = u) ‘. . (5 pts) AH,Jm féfifié’ reaction at T: 250C,p = 0.5 atm. Report in k]. AWE—three': AH[P(\!+WN0n AW 04 m 03 #7 is i Mlosmfir = Mllm) 4 [9?qu 10'5m5~39§x lo'finfix l—OSa‘rmlx 101.3153, t W E. (5 pts The work associated with this process at T= 25°C, p = 1 atm. Report in k]. W: ’PexJ: W: 4mm (legislation-0.10039 Co WJ l; kl 6. Bonus (+10 additional elements). Calculating AH for a temperature-elegant warmth skill. The molar heat capability may also be expressed as: C, = A + BT + Compute AHom, for the reaction of 1200 g of graphite by means of C(gmphim) -) C(diamond) at T= 3500C, p = 1 bar. MEMWJ abifimm + n 3‘" AC"? AT T5 I main ('11,) a {l00ml){if3qs fly 100111415231; + 1331- Jr 9,191 4.1 AHEMTE‘J : {861,5 if) + immolgk'TYflsJY-‘r ABTZ (023,15 . germ; ‘ (mamas 1194(8qu g1; i. lgqqxi [£eleven A) constructive facts: For graphite A = 16.86 J okay" moi"; B = four.77e—3 J K4 moi"; C = -8.54e5 J ok mol'l. For diamond A = 13.17 J k" moi"; B = 5.20e-three J okay-2 moi"; c = -7.65e5 J k moi". A119,," at 25°C and 1 bar = 1.895 U moi“ 2 dx I;=ln(x)+c 2 x2 x i4, ...View Full doc


    standards ENFORCEMENT test reviews INDEX FOR 1974

    Title:

    requisites ENFORCEMENT examine studies INDEX FOR 1974

    Accession quantity:

    00093937

    Availability:

    country wide Technical tips carrier

    5301 Shawnee RoadAlexandria, VA 22312 USAOrder number: PB-247971/5ST

    summary:

    The document is an index to standards Enforcement verify reviews of the country wide dual carriageway traffic security Administration which were released to the public right through calendar yr 1974. here is the sixth in a series of indexes to the requirements Enforcement examine stories of the NHTSA. the primary index covers the yr 1969 and is out-of-print however accessible for examination within the Administration; the second covers 1970 (PB-200 309), the third covers 1971 (PB-210 436), the fourth covers 1972 (PB-221 350), and the fifth covers 1973.

    Supplemental Notes:

    See additionally file dated Jul seventy five, PB-246 316.

    report/Paper Numbers:

    DOT-HS-801-761

    Contract Numbers:

    DOT-HS-four-00864

    corporate Authors:

    Kappa systems, integrated

    1501 Wilson BoulevardArlington, VA 22209 u . s . a .

    countrywide motorway site visitors defense Administration

    1200 New Jersey Avenue, SEWashington, DC 20590 u . s .

    publication Date:

    1975-11

    area Areas:

    Highways; protection and Human factors; cars and machine

    source agency:

    country wide Technical suggestions service

    5301 Shawnee RoadAlexandria, VA 22312 country

    Created Date:

    Mar 10 1976 12:00AM


    C11 Vs. Mak eight" for planetary observationsFor visual planetary observations, which it's more suitable between these?C11 (they are saying that he isn't a good deal superior, to the 9,25)C9,25Mak eight" f12 (obstruction important 34%)
    A questionnaire method to measuring the relative reinforcing efficacy of snack meals

    consume Behav. creator manuscript; available in PMC 2010 Jun three.

    posted in last edited kind as:

    PMCID: PMC2880400

    NIHMSID: NIHMS185139

    school of medication and Biomedical Sciences, institution at Buffalo, united states

    * Corresponding writer. department of Pediatrics, school of medication and Biomedical Sciences, university at Buffalo, Farber corridor, Room G56, 3435 main road, constructing #26, Buffalo, ny 14214-3000, u.s.. Tel.: +1 716 829 3400; fax: +1 716 829 3993

    The publisher's closing edited version of this article is accessible at consume Behav See other articles in PMC that cite the posted article. abstract

    Behavioral alternative concept and laboratory alternative paradigms can supply a framework to have in mind the reinforcing efficacy or reinforcing value of meals. Reinforcing efficacy is measured in the laboratory by means of assessing how tons effort one will engage in to benefit access to food because the volume of labor gradually raises. besides the fact that children, this system to establish demand curves as estimates of reinforcer efficacy is time drinking and limits the variety of reinforcers that will also be tested. The common intention of this analyze become to compare the reinforcing efficacy of snack foods the usage of a behavioral assignment that requires topics to respond to gain entry to portions of meals (LAB project) with a questionnaire edition of a deciding to buy task designed to investigate demand curves (QUES project) in nonobese and overweight adults (n = 24). outcomes confirmed correlations between the maximal amount of cash that people had been inclined to spend for meals (QUES Omax) and the maximal volume of responses made on the highest reinforcement schedule completed (LAB Omax) (r = 0.forty five, p < 0.05), and between BMI and the LAB Omax (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) and the QUES Omax (r = 0.52, p < 0.05). The analyze suggests the questionnaire gives legitimate measures of reinforcing efficacy that can also be utilized in area of or in conjunction with traditional laboratory paradigms to establish demand curves that describe the behavioral preserving houses of meals.

    key words: Reinforcement, eating, Behavioral economics

    food is a magnificent reinforcer, and developing a higher understanding of the incentive to consume could be essential for the treatment or prevention of weight problems (Epstein, Leddy, Temple, & faith, 2007). we now have proven in a sequence of experiences that obese adults and youngsters are extra influenced to work for palatable, favorite foods than leaner friends (Saelens & Epstein, 1996; Temple, Legerski, Giacomelli, Salvy, & Epstein, 2008), and those high in meals reinforcement eat more food in an advert libitum eating session than those that do not locate food as reinforcing (Epstein et al., 2004).

    Behavioral option conception and laboratory option paradigms can give a framework to have in mind the reinforcing price or efficacy of a food. Reinforcing efficacy or reinforcing cost is a theoretical construct that may also be used to be aware the behavioral protecting homes of a reinforcer (Bickel, Marsch, & Carroll, 2000; Griffiths, Brady, & Bradford, 1979). contemporary research has advised that reinforcing efficacy is not a static or homogenous assemble, but somewhat a multidimensional or heterogeneous assemble, made out of connected but distinctive features of reinforcement that will also be understood inside the framework of behavioral financial demand curve analysis (Bickel et al., 2000).

    Reinforcing value has traditionally been measured via picking out how a whole lot effort one will engage in to benefit entry to meals, with the magnitude of the reinforcing cost proportional to the volume of work during which the individual engages. This can also be based the use of revolutionary ratio schedules of reinforcement by which the participant is working best for access to food (Richardson & Roberts, 1996) or in a concurrent schedules choice situation, wherein members are working for food or a further alternative, or in some situations, two different types of meals (Epstein & Saelens, 2000; Epstein, Leddy et al., 2007).

    previous experiences in our laboratory have assessed the reinforcing value of meals the usage of a laboratory computing device primarily based behavioral alternative paradigm. One expertise of the use of a laboratory assignment is that it provides an objective measure of how hard an individual is inclined to work to benefit entry to a reinforcer. although, this formula is time consuming and boundaries the number of reinforcers that can also be established. furthermore, and perhaps most vital for the construction of a theoretical foundation for realizing meals reinforcement, is that one session laboratory revolutionary ratio tasks can not be used to set up demand curves. during this formulation, topics are supplied entry to parts of food or choice reinforcers if they meet the response necessities for that time table. After obtaining a reinforcer, that time table progressively increases until the person stops responding. several elegant measures can be found, together with the schedule associated with the termination of responding, or the breakpoint, the full variety of responses, and the relative distribution of responses if the examine uses option methodology. youngsters, it is not possible to verify demand curves, for the reason that the variety of reinforcers which are required before the agenda is increased is mounted. The equal paradigm can also be used to establish demand curves if the test contains numerous sessions, with each and every session committed to a selected schedule. it might even be preferable to devote assorted rather than single sessions at a schedule to be sure balance of responding earlier than relocating to the next progressive ratio. This method will also be used to set up components that alter reinforcer efficacy, however would no longer be possible to use this to establish particular person transformations. research on individual changes requires getting to know a large variety of subjects, and it could be difficult to study 200-309 each discipline for varied classes to establish individual variations in how influenced they're to gain food to eat. The development of time effective and flexible measures of reinforcing efficacy would be of colossal utility in assessing the reinforcing price of multiple reinforcers all over one analyze session and would noticeably decrease discipline burden.

    there has been a questionnaire developed to measure the reinforcing efficacy of medication (Griffiths, Rush, & Puhala, 1996) that has been tailored to look at food reinforcement (Goldfield, Epstein, Davidson, & Saad, 2005). This measure has been validated, and confirmed to be effective in assessing particular person variations in meals reinforcement that engage with dopamine genetics to foretell power intake (Epstein et al., 2004). although, this measure provides a measure of breakpoint, but can't be used to set up demand curves.

    The average system for measuring demand is to check the consequences of changing fees on consumption. In behavioral reviews rate is changed by means of various response necessities, and consumption pertains to the number of reinforcers acquired. as a result, buying projects that fluctuate response necessities in a progressive fashion permit for the estimation of substance consumption at various costs. Questionnaire models of deciding to buy tasks had been developed to measure the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in smokers (MacKillop et al., 2008) and alcohol in faculty drinkers (Murphy & MacKillop, 2006). results from these reports have shown an inverse relationship between consumption and value and the cigarette buy project has been shown to be a legitimate and low-budget system for assessing the reinforcing price of nicotine (MacKillop et al., 2008).

    The regular purpose of this examine become to compare the reinforcing efficacy of snack meals using a laboratory desktop based mostly measure of reinforcing efficacy (LAB) with a questionnaire that measures reinforcer efficacy (QUES). One intention of the study 200-309 changed into to validate the QUES by analyzing the correspondence of the statistics generated by means of the QUES and LAB project. moreover, we also desired to determine the relationship between the QUES and LAB initiatives and a number of measures that can be conceptually concerning meals reward, including the body Mass Index (BMI), measures of calories consumed during the advert libitum consuming session as well as ordinary power intake, and measures of starvation and food liking.

    1. formulation 1.1. individuals

    Twenty 4 participants had been studied, 12 overweight (physique mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 12 nonobese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) non-smoking adults between the a while of 18 and 50 (33.4 ± 11.1; imply ± SD). Seventeen percent of the participants had been minorities, with an equal variety of nonobese and obese male and female members. contributors were recruited from a pool of topics who had achieved a analyze dopamine genotypes, meals reinforcement and power consumption. contributors were excluded from the original look at if they had been taking medications associated with loss of urge for food, have been smokers, had diabetes, had in the past been clinically determined with an ingesting disease or psychiatric disorder (e.g. anxiousness, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disease), had been allergic to the parts in the look at foods, had been currently dieting, and didn't expense at least a reasonable liking (≥4 on a 9 element Likert-class scale) for 5 out of the six examine foods. individuals acquired a $15 gift certificates to local stores for finishing the look at. The study 200-309 changed into authorised by using the college at Buffalo health Sciences Institutional overview Board. Participant traits are shown in .

    Participant features.

    1.2. approaches

    contributors visited the laboratory for three sessions, an advert libitum snack-eating project, the meals reinforcement task, and the reinforcing efficacy questionnaire. All three experimental periods had been scheduled between the hours of two PM and 5 PM, during a standard period that people would eat further calories outdoor of time for supper. individuals were requested to refrain from consuming food or ingesting beverages, other than water, for at the least 3 h previous to the check session and to refrain from ingesting the experimental meals in the 24 h ahead of the examine session. Upon initial arrival at the laboratory, members read 200-309 and signed consent varieties, achieved a equal day and 24 h meals recollect and starvation questionnaires. members then accomplished the food purchase questionnaire. previous to the start of each and every session contributors were offered with a preload of a Luna first light Blueberry Bliss or Strawberry disintegrate Breakfast bar (Clif Bar & business; Berkeley, CA, 42 g, a hundred and fifty kcal, four g fat, 23 g carbohydrates, 7 g protein) to minimize the consequences of hunger on power consumption and meals reinforcement. The inclusion of a standard preload increases the capability to reveal particular person alterations in food reinforcement (Reiss & Havercamp, 1996). Demographic suggestions, peak and weight measurements and three dietary habits questionnaires have been administered all over the advert libitum consuming session.

    1.2.1. advert libitum ingesting task

    The advert libitum meals consumption assignment turned into presented as a style verify. members were offered 200–309 kcal (42–60 g) servings of six palatable, high-power density snack foods (amount of food presented (g) and energy density (kcal/g) proven in parentheses): Wavy Lay's Potato Chips (57 g, 5.four); Cooler Ranch Doritos (60 g, 5.0); M&M's (60 g, 5.0); Twix (forty eight g, 5.0); kit Kat (forty two g, 4.eight); and Butterfinger (57 g, four.5). Water turned into offered ad libitum. individuals had been told that they may consume as lots or as little of the meals that they wanted provided that they tasted each and every meals in order that they may precisely expense the meals's qualities. participants rated every food on a few different qualities together with pleasurability, sweetness, blandness, flavorfulness and bitterness the usage of 9-point Likert-classification scales. individuals were then given ingesting questionnaires to finished. food from the style test turned into left within the room and contributors were advised that the meals could be discarded after the session and they may continue eating if they choose to do so. When contributors indicated that they were complete, they had been asked to determine their favorite meals from among the many six purchasable and instructed that this became the meals that would be used in the food reinforcement and meals procuring examine sessions. as soon as the questionnaires were achieved, individuals' top and weight measurements had been taken and they got a reminder for the meals reinforcement talk over with. This visit become scheduled 2–3 weeks after the ad libitum eating session.

    1.2.2. food reinforcement (LAB) task

    The reinforcing value of meals was measured through deciding upon the variety of responses participants made for meals or meals options on innovative ratio schedules of reinforcement. The experimental ambiance covered two desktop stations that contributors might go from side to side between. At one station, members may earn facets towards meals and on the other station they might earn elements for time to spend study 200-309ing Time and Newsweek magazines. This option recreation became provided to reduce the likelihood that members would engage in responding out of boredom. members had been urged on how to use the desktop task and given a practice session. Following the directions for the assignment, the experimenter left the room. An intercom and closed circuit video device had been present within the room so the experimenter could observe the participant and the participant could talk with the experimenter.

    The reinforcement task is similar to a slot machine with shapes that rotate on the display and some extent is earned each and every time the three shapes healthy healthy and color. For every five facets earned, the field turned into able to obtain a sixty seven–103 kcal (14–20 g) portion of his or her favorite snack food chosen during the ad libitum consuming session or 2 min of time to spend read 200-309ing counting on which reward they were working for. The programmed reinforcement schedules for meals and study 200-309ing had been innovative mounted ratio schedules with response necessities of four, eight, 16, 32, sixty four, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048 and so on for every point. members were steered to operate one undertaking at a time (i.e. play the desktop online game, eat or read 200-309), and that the session would conclusion once they not wished to earn facets for access to food or time to spend analyzing. Water became supplied ad libitum.

    The food reinforcement project generates an basic response curve showing responding for food throughout the degrees of reinforcement. The assignment also generates a total variety of responses made for a reinforcer throughout all degrees of reinforcement and became used to generate a breakpoint for responding, which turned into described as the first reinforcement time table (i.e. 4, eight, sixteen, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048) for which responding become zero. The LAB Omax was described as the maximal amount of responses made on the optimum reinforcement schedule accomplished and the LAB Pmax changed into defined because the reinforcement agenda (i.e. 4, 8…2048) at which expenditure become maximized.

    1.2.three. meals deciding to buy questionnaire (QUES assignment)

    The meals buying project was modified from the cigarette buy task (CPT) (Bickel & Madden, 1999) and assessed a number of distinctive metrics of relative reinforcing efficacy. The procedure we used became modified to examine the relative reinforcing efficacy of snack meals. The snack meals used within the task become a 67–103 kcal element (14–20 g) of the participant's favored snack meals chosen throughout the ad libitum consuming session. The favourite food became displayed in front of the participant all the way through the task in order that they'd a body of reference when completing the questionnaire. The educational set for the project changed into as follows:

    imagine a standard DAY all over which you consume snack meals. here questions ask what number of portions of snack food you possibly can eat if they charge numerous amounts of cash. The accessible snack food is _______________ (favored snack food). anticipate you have got the same profits/savings that you've got now and NO access to any snack food aside from the snack food offered at these prices. in addition, count on that you would consume the snack meals that you just request on that day; it is you can't shop or stockpile snack meals for a later date. Please respond to the questions honestly. participants had been then asked to reply to here question: how many portions of ___________ (favorite snack food) would you eat if they have been ____ every at the following 19 expenditures?: Zero (free), $0.01, $0.05, $0.13, $0.25, $0.50, $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $11, $35, $70, $a hundred and forty, $280, $560, $1120. The expenses have been presented in ascending order.

    The QUES project used during this look at generates a food demand curve, reflecting the quantitative relationship between demand for food and escalating expense, and generated five QUES indices: (a) breakpoint (i.e. the primary cost at which consumption become zero), (b) depth of demand (i.e. consumption at the lowest fee), (c) elasticity of demand (i.e. sensitivity of snack meals consumption to increases in can charge), (d) QUES Omax (i.e. optimum expenditure for snack meals) and (e) QUES Pmax (i.e. price at which expenditure become maximized). particular person demand elasticities have been obtained the usage of combined results Regression models (MRM) which enable for regression analyses to check predictors of repeated based measures (Hedeker & Gibbons, 2006). in the fashions to estimate particular person elasticity coefficients, the intercept turned into considered a random variable and value become regarded a set impact. Log values of both the purchases and costs have been used in the model.

    1.3. measurement 1.three.1. Dietary remembers

    at the start of each session, participants have been interviewed by way of the experimenter, using a multi pass same day and 24 h meals recall, to examine adherence to the analyze protocol that that they had no longer consumed food or drink (apart from water) 3 h previous to the appointment and that they'd not eaten the favorite snack food in the 24 h ahead of the appointment. briefly, the first flow covered making a quick, uninterrupted listing of all of the foods and beverages consumed. For the 2d circulate, the experimenter reviewed the brief record and probed for any huge gaps of time between ingesting bouts. For the third pass, the experimenter returned to the starting of the checklist and requested for element sizes in addition to any condiments, introduced fats and added sugars that might also have been delivered to the meals item. The last circulate turned into to prompt the participant to recall some other meals that they may have forgotten, equivalent to meals that were eaten in small amounts. Measuring cups and spoons, rulers and footage of parts of meals had been supplied to assist the members estimate portion sizes. the whole variety of calories consumed was calculated for the remember in accordance with producers' labels and the meals Works foodstuff database (foodstuff business, 2007). typical energy intake changed into calculated based on a three-day regular of the 24 h dietary recalls collected the day ahead of the trying out days.

    1.3.2. Demographics

    The Hollingshead (Hollingshead, 1975) demographics questionnaire was used to verify socioeconomic status on the groundwork of training level, revenue, occupation and race. highest schooling attained become scored as 1 = less then 7th grade, 2 = Jr. high (ninth grade), three = some high college (tenth–11th grade), four = high college, 5 = some faculty or vocational training, 6 = accomplished 2 12 months school degree, 7 = accomplished four year college diploma, eight = accomplished graduate degree.

    1.three.three. peak and weight

    The participant's weight and top have been measured using a digital scale (TANITA agency of the united states Inc, Arlington Heights, IL) and a digital stadiometer (size concepts & short clinical, North Bend, WA). On the basis of top and weight statistics, physique mass index (BMI) became calculated in accordance with right here formulation: BMI = kg/m2. people had been considered overweight if their BMI changed into at least 30 kg/m2 and nonobese if their BMI become less than 30 kg/m2 (NHLBI obesity education Initiative expert Panel, 1998).

    1.3.four. consuming questionnaires

    participants completed the Three aspect consuming Questionnaire (TFEQ) (Stunkard & Messick, 1985), the Questionnaire of eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP) (Spitzer et al., 1992), and the Binge eating Scale (BES) (Gormally, Black, Daston, & Rardin, 1982). The TFEQ is a validated instrument to notice dietary restraint (Allison, Kalinsky, & Gorman, 1992) with three subscales that investigate dietary restraint, hunger and disinhibition. The QEWP and BES are used to determine binge eating disorder. contributors have been identified as potentially having binge ingesting ailment in the event that they scored greater than 27 on the BES or had been indicated as having the sickness through the QEWP. Any participant identified as potentially having binge consuming sickness became required to comprehensive the consuming issues Examination (Bryant-Waugh, Cooper, Taylor, & Lask, 1996), administered via a trained personnel in an extra session. No contributors during this subsample met the criteria for binge eating ailment.

    1.3.5. food liking, hunger

    Subjective scores of hunger had been accumulated pre and post intake of the preload and after all three examine sessions using a ten-point Likert-class scale. food hedonics was additionally measured pre and publish consumption of the preload and after the session for the meals reinforcement session as well as all the way through the meals paying for questionnaire. For starvation, 1 indicated no longer at all hungry/now not in any respect full and 10 indicated extraordinarily hungry/extremely full, while for hedonics 1 indicated now not liking in any respect and 10 indicated liking very tons.

    1.4. Analytic plan

    Pearson product–moment correlations were used to evaluate efficiency on the meals reinforcement LAB project to the food procuring QUES questionnaire, as smartly as the relationships between BMI, laboratory and commonplace energy consumption and starvation and liking. All analyses have been conducted using SYSTAT 11.0 (Systat software, 2004).

    2. consequences

    Participant features are proven in . As shown in , meals consumption exhibited a decelerating fashion according to cost raises and response output conformed to an inverted U-fashioned characteristic. The amount of money spent on purchases increased up to a price of $1.20, and the volume then regularly lowered unless no purchases had been made when the rate handed $5.00 per element (). indicates the enhance in responding over trials as the behavioral necessities to achieve meals multiplied. All topics were willing to make enough responses to finished the FR16 time table to obtain food, as shown through the absence of deviation. particular person ameliorations started on the FR32 schedule, and changes persisted up to the FR1024 schedule. No area replied at the FR2048 agenda. suggests the features of responding on the questionnaire QUES project. The commonplace personal-price or demand elasticity changed into −0.27. The terrible relationship suggests that as fee increases, purchases lessen. the pliability coefficient suggests a discount in procuring of the snack foods of two.7% for a ten% enhance in expense.

    food demand within the questionnaire meals buying project. everyday log–log coordinates are used for portionality, with zero values replaced with trivial nonzero values for the functions of plotting on a logarithmic scale.

    Expenditure for snack foods in the questionnaire meals paying for project. typical log–log coordinates are used for portionality, with zero values changed with trivial nonzero values for the purposes of plotting on a logarithmic scale.

    Responding for snack foods (imply ± SEM) across fastened ratio schedules of reinforcement.

    capability and regular errors for the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) and relative reinforcing cost of food (LAB) initiatives.

    As shown in , all QUES measures have been enormously correlated with one an extra, with the maximum correlations being between QUES Pmax and QUES Breakpoint which approached a correlation of 1.0, consistent with previous studies (Bickel & Madden, 1999; Johnson & Bickel, 2006). furthermore, there have been high correlations between measures on the LAB assignment. The univariate correlations between the QUES Omax and LAB Omax and LAB Pmax were both 0.forty five (p = 0.03) and the univariate correlation between the QUES Omax and the LAB number of total responses over all reinforcement schedules changed into 0.forty four (p = 0.03). moreover, QUES elasticity of demand become significantly correlated with LAB breakpoint (r = −0.45, p < 0.05) and with the LAB Omax, Pmax and total responses (r = −0.forty seven, p < 0.05).

    Correlations among relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) and relative reinforcing cost of meals (LAB) tasks.

    indicates correlations of the QUES and LAB indices with variables conceptually involving ingesting and weight problems. BMI become correlated with each the LAB Omax (r = 0.52, p = 0.009) and the QUES Omax (r = 0.43, p = 0.04). There changed into also a big correlation between the LAB complete number of responses made on the food reinforcement project and BMI (r = 0.fifty one, p = 0.01), as smartly because the demand elasticity for the QUES project and all the LAB measures except for the breakpoint. Laboratory energy intake correlated with the entire LAB measures, and elasticity for the QUES measures. general power consumption turned into additionally correlated with all of the LAB measures, however none of the QUES measures. food liking become additionally regarding all the LAB measures, however not one of the QUES measures. Dietary restraint become concerning the demand elasticity for the QUES project (r = 0.47, p = 0.02), however none of the LAB measures; besides the fact that children, dietary hunger changed into involving all the LAB measures, but not one of the QUES measures. educational level turned into no longer involving any of the QUES or LAB measures.

    Correlations amongst relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE), relative reinforcing price of food (LAB) and BMI and measures or eating.

    3. discussion

    in the present analyze, we in comparison efficiency on a questionnaire approach to measuring reinforcer efficacy with performance on a standard progressive ratio behavioral alternative relative reinforcing value paradigm. effects confirmed that performance on the questionnaire QUES assignment become tremendously positively associated with performance on the LAB laboratory measure. The QUES Omax and the elasticity of the demand curve generated from the QUES task confirmed advantageous associations with the LAB Omax and the LAB Pmax and the full responses remodeled all schedules of reinforcement. not one of the different QUES indices (e.g. Pmax, Breakpoint, and so on.) had been significantly correlated with performance on the laptop primarily based measure.

    We additionally sought to validate the QUES project used during this look at as a time and cost effective measure of the reinforcing efficacy of snack foods, producing effects that converge with outdated reports the usage of procuring projects (MacKillop et al., 2008; Murphy & MacKillop, 2006). The effects from the QUES assignment had been topographically in line with what is usually followed in laboratory food paying for studies (Epstein, Dearing, Paluch, Roemmich, & Cho, 2007; Epstein et al., 2006). The measure confirmed some convergent validity with the Omax and the pliancy of the demand curve being particularly correlated with BMI and the elasticity of the demand curve being totally correlated with the total energy consumed all the way through the laboratory session. there were inconsistent relationships between dietary restraint or starvation as measured by way of the TFEQ (Stunkard & Messick, 1985) and the questionnaire and laboratory initiatives, with elasticity on the questionnaire related to dietary restraint, and hunger regarding all elements of laboratory responding.

    in addition, we also examined the connection between distinct aspects of reinforcement generated by the QUES project. there were giant correlations between the distinct measures of RRE, with most measures being enormously correlated with one one other. The highest correlations had been between the Pmax observed and the breakpoint which approached collinearity, in line with old stories (Bickel & Madden, 1999; Johnson & Bickel, 2006).

    whereas there have been similarities in the values derived from the two measures, there may be critical alterations in how the measures are concerning power consumed within the laboratory or commonplace power consumption or food liking. both the QUES and LAB initiatives showed relationships with energy consumption within the laboratory, however most effective the LAB project changed into strongly related to standard energy consumption or food liking. One knowledge to using paper and pencil primarily based measures of food reinforcement is that it's time and value productive and allows researchers to examine the reinforcing efficacy of multiple reinforcers in a single check session. historically, reinforcing efficacy may also be measured with both absolute or relative reinforcing value depending on even if only one or diverse options can be found. The sample of responding in single versus concurrent schedules of reinforcement may well be the identical, such that a food that is very reinforcing in a single paradigm is additionally very reinforcing within the different paradigm (Bickel et al., 2000). The QUES assignment used during this study 200-309 simplest supplied contributors with one reinforcer alternative, and responding may additionally have been distinct if there had been an option reinforcer to snack foods current equivalent to one more meals or a sedentary activity. The QUES project additionally presented hypothetical paying for choices, as subjects did not truly purchase and consume meals. in all probability most important, the QUES project may also be used to generate demand elasticity curves, which may well be a favorite approach to verify reinforcing efficacy (Bickel et al., 2000; Johnson & Bickel, 2006). Laboratory behavioral alternative measures to verify reinforcing efficacy assess the sample of responding to progressive ratio schedules, but require assessment of responding at every schedule in separate sessions, which makes determination of individual adjustments in the reinforcing efficacy of food difficult.

    an extra formula that has been used to establish the reinforcing cost or efficacy of food is the use of experimental analog paying for projects in which the price of 1 commodity is manipulated and the price of an extra commodity is held consistent. studies in our laboratory have seemed at the utility of using behavioral analogs of food paying for to clarify procuring habits which as a result influences consumption. we've proven in a collection of reports that because the fee of a specific meals raises consumption of that meals will decrease and vice versa (Epstein, Dearing et al., 2007; Epstein et al., 2006). These studies had been used to set up demand curves and can be used to examine the own and move expense elasticity for distinctive commodities. Future analysis evaluating efficiency on traditional progressive schedules of reinforcement with analog purchasing initiatives might also yield a further choice formula for setting up the reinforcing price of foods. A food it is tremendously reinforcing may additionally also reveal better degrees of cost inelasticity when measured the use of an analog deciding to buy assignment.

    There are several barriers to the study 200-309. as an example, the sample dimension changed into small, and we did request that contributors now not devour the experimental meals for the day earlier than the look at various session. This might also have affected their commonplace energy consumption on the day in advance of checking out and therefore relationships with normal power intake measured right through the 3 days prior to coming to the laboratory should still be interpreted with warning.

    The findings from the current study 200-309 imply that in some situations, questionnaire versions of reinforcing efficacy that set up demand curves, in addition to proposing ordinary measures of responding in keeping with innovative raises in response necessities (charge), can also be utilized in place of or in conjunction with laptop based paradigms to establish the behavioral retaining properties of meals. possibly the most appropriate use of the questionnaire is as a screening device to get a concept of potential reinforcers that would be then established using the laboratory behavioral choice paradigm. further analysis is needed to compare to other deciding to buy projects that will also be used to establish demand elasticity, in addition to no matter if demand curves are extra strongly concerning obesity than other measures of reinforcing efficacy. within the current analyze the maximal responding to revolutionary ratio schedules (Omax) turned into a bit of more involving BMI and laboratory energy intake than the food purchasing elasticity, which warrants greater research to replicate this finding, and establish even if demand curves can be used to predict who will respond to behavioral obesity interventions, no matter if the assignment may also be used with toddlers, with various kinds of food, and whether particular person changes in elasticity of demand predicts the building of weight problems in prospective studies.

    Acknowledgments

    function of funding source: this article become funded through NIH supply DA024883 awarded to Dr. Leonard H. Epstein.

    Footnotes

    Contributors: Dr. Epstein got funding for the analyze, and designed, analyzed and interpreted statistics, and supervised writing of the manuscript. Ms. Dearing assisted with the design, analysis, interpretation and writing of the manuscript, while Ms. Roba assisted in the information assortment and writing of the manuscript.

    conflict of interest: The authors don't have any conflict of hobby. Dr. Epstein is a expert to Kraft meals.

    publisher's Disclaimer: this text looked in a journal posted with the aid of Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the writer for inside non-commercial analysis and training use, together with for instruction on the authors institution and sharing with colleagues.

    different uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third celebration sites are prohibited.

    In most cases authors are approved to publish their edition of the article (e.g. in observe or Tex form) to their own website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further assistance related to Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are inspired to seek advice from: http://www.elsevier.com/copyright

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