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000-190 - AIX Basic Operations V5 - Dump Information

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Exam Code : 000-190
Exam Name : AIX Basic Operations V5
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Updated On : March 20, 2018
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000-190 Questions and Answers

000-190 AIX Basic Operations V5

Article by Killexams IBM Certification Experts


IBM AIX Basic Operations

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suggestions I Picked up on the energy systems Technical college | real questions with brain dumps

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In October, I attended and spoke on the energy systems Technical school in New Orleans. whereas i was there i was in a position to attend some very valuable sessions and picked up some incredible suggestions. i assumed this might possibly be a chance to share a few of those with you. in spite of the fact that I actually have been working within the area for a very long term, I find these conferences extraordinarily advantageous—both for networking and the technical content. At this conference i was focusing on a number of areas that i wanted to increase my potential on: superior mode HMC, networking and Spectrum Scale (previously GPFS). below are a series of tidbits I picked up. with a bit of luck you’ll find them positive as neatly.


some of the greater unique things I discovered (from Alexander Paul) turned into very basic : the way to promptly switch an IP tackle devoid of inflicting an outage. I’ve been moving my NIM server from totally virtualized to standalone and found this to be very positive.

In my case i was moving from en3 to en1

ifconfig en3 192.168.sixty five.150 switch en1 I then test with ping, and so on and whether it is working I make it everlasting as follows: chdev -l en1 -a hundred fifty -a netmask= -a state=up be cautious that you simply disable en3 before the subsequent reboot or it will come lower back up with the equal IP handle and you may have a reproduction IP error. you could use chdev to set en3 to state=down or my very own favorite is to rmdev the adapter and run cfgmgr so it comes lower back clear: rmdev -dl et3 rmdev -dl en3 rmdev -dl ent3 cfgmr

I also went to a superb session on Wireshark by using Roy Spencer. I’ve been taking a look at lots of trace output for VIO servers and the ocean has reproduction packets since the SEA sees the packet come in from the LPAR and the transmit out. It turns out that Wireshark contains a utility to remove these duplicate packets:

editcap -F nettle -d ‘supply’ ‘dest’

this will support me plenty in my evaluation specially when attempting to supply packet counts.

vigor Masters

The hints of the vigour Masters (Gareth Coates) session is at all times a pretty good vicinity to discover nuggets. In selected, he offered details on how to switch on faraway execution, remote operation and far off digital terminals for the HMC in greater mode. this is no longer under HMC administration—as an alternative you’ll find it below users and safety, techniques and console protection. There’s a edition of this session obtainable at the vigour virtual person group and a demo of the stronger HMC at the UK PowerVM virtual consumer neighborhood. I picked up loads of suggestions on the HMC during this session including counsel around RMC.

VIOS and other assistance I Picked Up

export CLI_DEBUG=33 Then run a VIO command and it will exhibit you the genuine AIX commands which are completed behind the scenes.

I determined to test this on my device and here is what I saw: $ export CLI_DEBUG=33 $ lsnports AIX: "/usr/lib/strategies/viosmgr -t npiv -f query_fc_ports >/dev/null" name physloc textile tports aports swwpns awwpns fcs4 U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C6-T1 1 sixty four 57 3088 3065 fcs5 U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C6-T2 1 sixty four fifty seven 3088 3065 lsnports is a valuable solution to examine if your fibre ports are connected to an NPIC in a position swap. If this is now not the case you'll see right here message: “gadget would not have NPIV equipped ports or no NPIV ports with the link up.” $ lsmap -all -vnic AIX: "lsdev -c adapter -t IBM,vnic-server -s vdevice -F "name" | wc -l -c" AIX: "lsdev -c adapter -t IBM,vnic-server -s vdevice -F "name"" handle channel

an extra valuable tip is how to determine for the handle channel (the new default is 4095 as of 2.2.3)

# lsdev -C | grep ent | grep Shared ent7 accessible Shared Ethernet Adapter # entstat -d ent7 | grep "control Channel"

control Channel PVID: 4095 control Channel Adapter: ent4

As that you can see, the ocean is on ent7 and the digital ethernet carrying the site visitors is ent4

direction concerns

recently I even have worked on varied techniques the place the paths were tousled for a number of factors. It became essential to eliminate the missing or failed paths without destroying the enabled paths. the way to do that is using the lspath command and get it to list all of the paths for that disk.

lspath -l hdisk15 -H -F "identify:dad or mum:connection:status" | grep missing (or grep Failed)

which you can put this right into a loop the place it might probably produce the proper output for you.

for instance

lspath -l hdisk15 -H -F "name:dad or mum:connection:reputation" identify:mother or father:connection:status hdisk15:fscsi4:500507680d088ef6,10000000000000:Enabled hdisk15:fscsi4:500507680d088ef7,10000000000000:Enabled hdisk15:fscsi5:500507680d048ef6,10000000000000:Enabled hdisk15:fscsi5:500507680d048ef7,10000000000000:Enabled

If the first course on fcsci4 turned into missing you may then get rid of it the usage of:

rmpath -dl hdisk15 -p fscsi4 -w 500507680d088ef6,10000000000000

There are a few examples of how to script creation of the output in an article by means of David Tansley.


Gareth also protected a script to listing the WWNs for the LPAR—I modified it a little bit so as to add the hostname and adapter slot tips:

# cat hostj=`hostname` lsdev -Ccadapter | grep fcs | awk 'print $1,$three' | whereas study fcs slot do wwpn=`lscfg -vl $fcs | grep -i community | reduce -c 37-60` wwpn1=` lscfg -vl $fcs | grep -i Hardware | reduce -c 47-64` echo $hostj $fcs $slot $wwpn1 $wwpn executed # ./ vio2 fcs4 05-00 WZS0234-P1-C6-T1 10000090FA530975 vio2 fcs5 05-01 WZS0234-P1-C6-T2 10000090FA530976 vio2 fcs6 06-04 WZS0234-P1-C8-T1 10000090FA740155 vio2 fcs7 06-05 WZS0234-P1-C8-T2 10000090FA740156

here is a pretty good solution to get the WWPNs to be able to provide them to the storage admins for zoning.

There’s also a -client flag on fcstat (as of VIO on the way to get you assistance on records for all of the WWNs and WWPNs that the VIO sees. You cqan run simply fcstat -client to get full facts or you can use the command to get the WWPNs and WWNs. that you may additionally use the viostat -adapter command to get information. To get the WWNs and WWPNs, as padmin on vio2 I ran: fcstat -customer | reduce -c 1-50 consequences had been:

hostname dev wwpn vio2 fcs4 0x10000090FA530975 aix1nim fcs2 0xC0507607DBD8002C gpfs1 fcs2 0xC0507607DBD80034 vio2 fcs5 0x10000090FA530976 aix1nim fcs3 0xC0507607DBD8002E gpfs1 fcs3 0xC0507607DBD80036

From the HMC that you may additionally are attempting:

lshwres -r io --rsubtype slotchildren -m Server-8286-41A-SN215D3AV -F phys_loc,description,mac_address,wwpn (which you could add a | grep Fibre)

I don’t use the grep on the end on Fibre as I also need to see what FCOe adapters I have

hscroot@HMC:~> lshwres -r io --rsubtype slotchildren -m Server-8286-41A-SN215D3AV -F phys_loc,description,mac_address,wwpn | grep PCI U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C6-T1,PCIe2 16Gb 2-Port Fibre Channel Adapter,null,10000090fa530975 U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C6-T2,PCIe2 16Gb 2-Port Fibre Channel Adapter,null,10000090fa530976 U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C8-T2,"PCIe2 four-port (2 10GbE+2 1GbE) FCoE+NIC SRIOV Adapter, FCoE PF",null,10000090fa740156 U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C8-T1,"PCIe2 four-port (2 10GbE+2 1GbE) FCoE+NIC SRIOV Adapter, NIC PF",0090fa740151,null U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C8-T1,"PCIe2 four-port (2 10GbE+2 1GbE) FCoE+NIC SRIOV Adapter, FCoE PF",null,10000090fa740155 U78C9.001.WZS0234-P1-C8-T4,"PCIe2 4-port (2 10GbE+2 1GbE) FCoE+NIC SRIOV Adapter, NIC PF",0090fa740154,null

As that you could see there are two marvelous ways to get the same assistance, depending on the place you wish to request it from and what structure you need it to be in.

constructive IBM tools

I even have mentioned these earlier than, however there are a gaggle of tools that i take advantage of all the time. They encompass nmon, nmon analyser, HMC Scanner, FLRT (repair level advice tool, FLRTVC (FLRT vulnerability checker) and fcstat -D.


nmon has been a part of the operating equipment on the grounds that AIX 6.1 and is used by using admins in all places the realm to accumulate performance information. i like to run it the use of here flags in order that I don’t pass over anything:

nmon -ft -AOPV^dMLW -s 15 -c 120

The above takes a 30 minute image (a hundred and twenty x 15 2d snaps) and comprises asynchronous IO (A), the sea (O) paging (P), volume agencies (V), fibre adapter information (^), disk provider instances (d), reminiscence pages (M), giant pages (L) and workload manager records (W) if you're running workload manager. I run nmon the entire time so my commonplace cron job runs for twenty-four hours the use of “-s a hundred and fifty -c 576”. depending on how granular you need to get that you may tweak these values.

nmon analyser

nmon analyser goes hand in hand with nmon. It’s an Excel spreadsheet that strategies nmon information and produces graphs of what is occurring. It’s not a complete efficiency monitoring solution, however gives some useful suggestions for daily efficiency work. I complement this with my very own information gathering scripts that accumulate extra intensive information.

HMC Scanner

The HMC Scanner is a superb device for documenting your gadget in one location. The current edition is 0.eleven.35—you actually down load 0.11.24 after which change the .jar file to get to 0.11.35. that you could installation it on AIX and run it from there against the HMC or you can run it out of your computer, assuming you have the relevant Java put in. I continually run it from AIX the use of:

./hmcScanner.ksh servername hscroot -p password -stats

This produces a bunch of files, however the one you need is the one which ends .xls. here's the Excel spreadsheet with the entire programs related to the HMC documented.


FLRT (repair stage recommendation device) has been round for a number of years now and it’s some thing i exploit every time i am planning an upgrade or attempting to check how lengthy i will be able to stave off an improve for. probably the most fresh edition offers you with the free up date for the versions you're operating and their endo of carrier date (if introduced). It also offers those for the advised improve tiers. it will also provide hyperlinks to the readme info for the informed updates.

FLRTVC is a vulnerability checker. You download the script and run it on the gadget to be reviewed. It uses wget or curl to are trying to down load a file referred to as apar.csv from IBM and it then assessments time-honored concerns against your utility stages. the most average issues it finds are back tiers of SSH, SSL and Java - through default these are at an insecure stage and new ranges should be put in. At a minimal, Openssh should be at and openssl should be at to keep away from security complications. Java should still be on the August 2017 degree which for Java7 is I exchange these on all my programs together with my VIO servers. FLRTVC identifies the efixes and ifixes that deserve to go on, offers links to the readmes and additionally to the genuine download. which you could ship the output to a .txt file, download it and open it in Excel (it’s in csv layout) to make it less difficult to view. I customarily run FLRTVC on my vital systems as soon as a month.


if you are looking at fibre adapter data then you definately will want to be familiar with the fcstat command, exceptionally the fcstat -D. in case you run fcstat -D against a fibre port it'll give the WWN/WWPN as smartly because the firmware edition, the adapter velocity that it's running:

FIBRE CHANNEL information document: fcs4 equipment classification: FC Adapter (adapter/pciex/df1000e21410f10) Serial number: 1A34200935 ZA: here is the microcode – lsmcode -A suggests it as: fcs4!df1000e21410f103.00010000020025201919 all over Node identify: 0x20000090FA530975 everywhere Port identify: 0x10000090FA530975 WWPN for zoning …….. Port velocity (supported): sixteen GBIT Can run up to 16Gbit Port velocity (operating): 8 GBIT however is related at 8Gbit Port FC id: 0x010300 Adapter FCID – valuable to figure out where you are connectedPort category: clothconsideration category: hyperlink Up Topology: element to factor or material

further down that you could assessment records with the intention to deliver signs of whether there is queuing at the adapter or protocol drivers.

Create a clone of a boot disk alt_disk_copy –d hdisk2 bosboot –a –d hdisk2 bootlist –m commonplace hdisk2

The above copies the latest rootvg disk to hdisk2 so one can develop into the altinst_rootvg volume group. that you could use this as a backup earlier than making alterations to the existing system (simple reboot of the brand new volume group to recuperate), or you can then work on the new quantity neighborhood the usage of alt_disk_install and alt_rootvg_op instructions. that you could additionally make minor alterations (comparable to adding a host to the /and many others/hosts on the alternat disk) by waking up the quantity group:

alt_disk_install -W hdisk2 that you would be able to now go and vi /alt_inst/and many others/hosts

in the event you are performed you set the quantity group returned to sleep:

alt_disk_install -S hdisk2

each time you employ alternate disk deploy or any of its derivatives be sure to element the bootlist to whichever disk you want to boot from next. via default, most of the alternate disk installation commands change the bootlist to aspect to the brand new volume group and this may also not be what you want to do.


I discovered the power techniques Technical university conference to be very positive when it comes to making a choice on up assistance to make my life less difficult as a sysadmin. with a bit of luck you're going to discover these tips effective as neatly. I enormously recommend attending these conferences—there are some awesome classes, however many counsel get picked up all the way through the networking discussions the place which you can evaluate notes with others. Many thanks to all those that offered and shared their concepts with myself and others.

Jaqui Lynch is an unbiased advisor, specializing in business structure, efficiency and birth on power systems with AIX and Linux.

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First XPoint, then Z-NAND: Oh expensive, server-makers. SCM is going on | real questions with brain dumps

evaluation Storage-classification reminiscence (SCM), in the shape of Optane, is already here and, with Samsung's Z-SSD, set to turn into attainable to be used by way of servers. What does this suggest and when will it definitely ensue?

SCM, also referred to as persistent memory (PMEM) is a sooner edition on non-risky reminiscence, built using Intel/Micron's 3D XPoint media or Samsung's Z-SSD – tweaked LLC (1bit/cellphone) NAND. it is faster than flash, additionally extra high priced, and slower than DRAM however less costly.

SCM is speedy satisfactory that it may also be used as an adjunct to to DRAM and addressed/used as reminiscence by using purposes and equipment software but it surely is additionally persistent and so apps don't want typical IO stack code code to study and write facts from/to SCM.

adequate: but how could this affect servers and storage?

A diagram can lay out the land for us:


SCM in a server (with because of Dave Hitz)

taking a look at this set of packing containers we see a collection of purposes (App) and functions in digital machines (App/VM) within the precise of the diagram. The Apps run in a actual server with an working device. The App/VMs run in a virtualised server with a hypervisor.

There aren't any containers in this diagram; we will believe them as an additional type of server virtualisation for the time being. these days the App and the App/VMs use DRAM after which run IO operations to local direct-connected or exterior storage (pink arrows).

If SCM is installed, it's conceptually placed alongside DRAM during this diagram. Some utility is needed to present DRAM + SCM as a single memory address area/entity to the Apps and App/VMs (blue arrows).

The diagram has this as a software shim sitting between the O/S and hypervisor boxes and the Apps. It appears like memory to those pieces of working code, bulks out the DRAM and makes it possible for the Apps and App/VMs to run lots sooner if they are IO-sure, as most are.

consider of it as a clear cache with cache administration application; the shim.

it is for warm data, and wishes originally loading with statistics and and having newly-created records shifted to longer-term storage. So blue arrows link it to direct-attached storage within the server or across a community to exterior storage.

The cache management software or shim might be a equipment-degree software, akin to NetApp's Plexistor, or it could be part of the server's OS or hypervisor. during this case we ask, originally, how will physical server working techniques, comparable to windows, Unix and Linux, guide SCM?

Secondly, we ask, how will hypervisors – such as vSphere, XEN and VM – support SCM?

Hardware attitude

however there's a greater simple question. The SCM media is equipped internal a server. How? Is it a PCIe interface power in a typical drive bay or PCIe slot? Or is it equipped direct to the memory bus through the use of the NV-DIMM form factor?

The latter is the quickest connection but there needs to be an NV-DIMM standard for this in order that any trade-standard X86 server can use it – or any server, length. We're pondering IBM vigor, Fujitsu/Oracle SPARC, and ARM processors here.

one more query during this enviornment is: who suits it? The glaring answer is the server supplier. ok, that capability taking a 1U blade-structure server, or a 2U x 24-slot workhorse model; there is much less area within the enclosure for different add-ons, equivalent to SSDs. What may still be the appropriate balance between the amounts of DRAM, SCM and native storage?

it is a tricky difficulty for server vendors to clear up, meaning Cisco, Dell, Fujitsu, HPE, Huawei, Lenovo, SuperMicro, Vantara, etc.

Who will make the SCM DIMMs? impartial NV-DIMM suppliers such as Diablo technologies have to date been fighting an uphill battle, and it looks clear that it have to be the SCM media producers – Intel/Micron and Samsung to this point. each Micron and Samsung make DRAM in addition to NAND, so are DIMM-mindful, and they have the relationships with server carriers to supply DRAM and NAND.

we can see how the actual deliver chain favours the SCM media manufacturers and server companies. anyone outside this ecosystem goes to have a hard time selling SCM media drives in whatever thing kind they may exist – 2.5-inch power, add-in-card or NV-DIMM.

application perspective

The software facet of this condominium comes all the way down to asking if the OS and hypervisor providers deliver the vital SCM utility or do independents akin to NetApp's Plexistor, the in-reminiscence people like Hazelcast, or some as-yet-unknown open source initiative constructing on, as an instance, Memcached, provide a separate shim?

whatever the influence there has to be no consequent changes to purposes for SCM adoption to proceed at a fast lick.

Hyper-converged play

Let's throw a curve-ball in right here and ask how hyper-converged infrastructure (HCI) equipment suppliers will react to SCM adoption. it be likely that they (a) are looking to use it so as not to be left in the back of efficiency-clever, and (b) are looking to mixture it throughout HCI nodes.

that is a problem for Cisco, Dell EMC (VxRack/Rail), HPE, NetApp (now), Nutanix, Pivot3, Scale, and utility HCIA suppliers equivalent to DataCore, Maxta and so on.

It appears to us that Nutanix is in a pretty good location right here since it purchased Pernixdata, whose expertise offered hypervisor-degree caching. Can SCM be aggregated throughout servers (or HCI nodes) to give a single logical SCM useful resource pool? should still it?

We haven't any reply to those questions.

network attitude

looking at the SCM backend, because it were, it has to eject cool statistics to a longer term storage equipment, that means an IO within the usual IO stack experience, except an NVMe over fabrics (RDMA) hyperlink is used. So code can be crucial to accomplish this, as part of the shim. goal gadgets can also be native to the server or far off (filer or SAN or, conceivably, public cloud).

Our diagram indicates the community checklist including HCI and cluster nodes and this is a matter, we feel, for the HCI and cluster suppliers. however network links to storage arrays is a be counted for the storage array industry along with the storage array interconnect ecosystem, which means Ethernet/iSCSI/NFS, Fibre Channel and InfiniBand suppliers.

The network interconnect americans deserve to have a mature NVMe over fabric common so that servers on the entrance end and arrays on the back-conclusion can use a standard NVMeoF HBA or adapter at both end of the hyperlink. It would not seem to be quintessential for suppliers like Brocade or Mellanox to do anything particular for SCM; NVMeoF will do as the integral network plumbing.

Storage array angle

The storage array people might also believe they do need to do whatever special, and contribute actively to preserving the SCM cache optimally populated with hot statistics. What they might also do, even though, isn't have an conclusion-to-end NVMe hyperlink between servers and their array, as a result of that ability facts site visitors bypasses their controllers, which as a result are ignorant about the state of the drives they now not manage, and can't sensibly observe information capabilities to the statistics in those drives until advised to achieve this by functions within the servers.

We notice that Datrium and Excelero and others have a server presence and could do that in principle.

What the array suppliers might do is to serve incoming requests throughout an NVMe cloth from controller cache and so get NVMeoF-category pace with out turning their arrays into constructive flash JBODs, which pure, controller skip, conclusion-to-conclusion NVMe would do.

truly, array controllers may use SCM for such caching, and NetApp is asking into this.

There may be adjustments between how SANs and filers react to and use SCM, and additionally object storage, but we won't seem to be into that here.

Nirvana is coming – simply now not yet

A bunch of servers, equipped with SCM and speakme NVMe to longer-term storage, may be vastly extra productive than ultra-modern servers. computing device gaining knowledge of, database responsiveness and analytics can be, we think, literally revolutionised by means of the type of statistics amounts that may held in a server and be processed in actual time.

however the fitting of SCM media on my own will not cause this nirvana. an entire series of expertise areas and technology suppliers must be built-in and work collectively to make this happen.

It not appears that SCM-using servers are a remote possibility. They appear a particular opportunity now, but we'll doubtless should wait a couple of years. SCM Nirvana 1.0 could be a 2019 or later experience. ®

equipment logging | real questions with brain dumps

study Linux, 101

What's been happening

Ian ShieldsPublished on November 28, 2017

content series: This content is a part # of # in the sequence: be taught Linux, a hundred and one trained+Linux+101

dwell tuned for further content during this collection.

This content is a component of the collection:study Linux, one zero one

reside tuned for additional content in this series.


in this tutorial, gain knowledge of to:

  • Configure the syslog daemon
  • take into account commonplace amenities, priorities, and moves
  • Configure log rotation
  • take into account rsyslog and syslog-ng
  • What's going on inside your system?

    A Linux equipment has many subsystems and applications running. you utilize equipment logging to gather records about your working device from the second it boots. every so often you just deserve to understand that each one is neatly. At other instances you utilize this facts for auditing, debugging, knowing when a disk or other resource is running out of capacity, and a lot of other applications. which you could assemble log facts on one device and ahead it to yet another gadget for processing. Log facts can be displayed on a terminal, such as the root consumer's terminal, however more commonly it is saved in files, or forwarded over sockets to a log server. of course, logging is totally configurable.

    The normal syslog facility and its syslogd daemon supply this logging. at the moment, syslog has been supplemented via different logging amenities similar to rsyslog, syslog-ng, and the systemd journal subsystem. I introduce you to those amenities during this tutorial.

    This tutorial helps you put together for purpose 108.2 in topic 108 of the Linux Server knowledgeable (LPIC-1) exam 102. The goal has a weight of three.


    To get essentially the most from the tutorials in this collection, you want a fundamental talents of Linux and a working Linux gadget on which that you would be able to observe the instructions lined during this tutorial. you should be well-known with GNU and UNIX instructions. now and again distinctive models of a application layout output differently, so your results might no longer always appear precisely just like the listings proven here.

    during this tutorial, i take advantage of Slackware 42.2 for syslogd examples, CentOS 7 for rsyslogd examples, and Fedora 26 for systemd-journalctl and syslog-ng examples.

    usual syslog and the syslogd daemon

    The traditional syslog device logging facility on a Linux device offers equipment logging and kernel message trapping. that you would be able to log data in your native system or send it to a far flung gadget. Use the /and so on/syslog.conf configuration file to finely control the stage of logging. Logging is performed through the syslogd daemon, which constantly receives input in the course of the /dev/log socket, as shown in listing 1.

    checklist 1. /dev/log is a socket [ian@attic4-sl42 ~]$ # Slackware 42.2 [ian@attic4-sl42 ~]$ /bin/ls -l /dev/log srw-rw-rw- 1 root root 0 Nov 19 sixteen:35 /dev/log

    For native logging, the main file is always /var/log/messages, however many other information are used in most installations, always determined in the /var/log directory or a subdirectory of it. which you can personalize these greatly. as an example, you may additionally need a separate log for messages from the mail system.

    The syslog.conf configuration file

    The syslog.conf file is the main configuration file for the syslogd daemon. Entries in syslog.conf specify logging rules. each rule has a selector box and an action box, which might be separated with the aid of one or extra areas or tabs. The selector box identifies the ability and the priorities that the rule of thumb applies to, and the action field identifies the logging action for the facility and priorities.

    The described amenities are auth (or protection), authpriv, cron, daemon, ftp, kern, lpr, mail, mark, information, syslog, user, uucp, and local0 via local7. The key phrase auth should be used instead of protection, and the key phrase mark is for internal use.

    The priorities (in ascending order of severity) are:

  • debug
  • data
  • notice
  • warning (or warn)
  • err (or error)
  • crit
  • alert
  • emerg (or panic)
  • The parenthesized key terms (warn, error, and panic) at the moment are deprecated.

    The default habits is to take action for the special level and for all bigger ranges, even though it is viable to limit logging to particular ranges. each selector includes a facility and a precedence separated by way of a duration (dot). assorted facilities for a given motion can also be detailed by means of keeping apart them with a comma. distinct facility/priority pairs for a given action will also be specified by means of separating them with a semicolon. record 2 shows an illustration of an easy syslog.conf file.

    listing 2. illustration syslog.conf # Log anything 'warn' or larger. # Exclude authpriv, cron, mail, and news. These are logged somewhere else. # do not log deepest authentication messages! *.warn;\ authpriv.none;cron.none;mail.none;news.none -/var/log/syslog # The authpriv file has restrained access. authpriv.* /var/log/relaxed # Log the entire mail messages in a single region. mail.* -/var/log/maillog # Log cron stuff cron.* /var/log/cron # all and sundry gets emergency messages *.emerg * # store information blunders of level crit and better in a special file. uucp,information.crit /var/log/spooler


  • As with many configuration files, traces beginning with # and blank traces are ignored.
  • An * could be used to discuss with all facilities or all priorities.
  • The particular precedence key phrase none suggests that no logging for this facility should be performed with this action.
  • The hyphen earlier than a file identify (comparable to -/var/log/maillog, during this illustration) suggests that the log file should no longer be synchronized after every write. You might lose guidance after a system crash, however you might benefit efficiency by using doing this.
  • The moves are generically referred to as "logfiles," despite the fact they wouldn't have to be true info. table 1 describe the feasible logfiles.

    table 1. movements in syslog.conf motion purpose usual fileSpecify the total pathname, starting with a scale back (/). Prefix it with a hyphen (-) to pass over syncing the file after each and every log entry. This may cause suggestions loss if a crash occurs, however may improve efficiency. Named pipes Use a primary-in first-out (FIFO) or named pipe as a destination for log messages by using including a pipe image (|) earlier than the file name. You should create the FIFO using the mkfifo command before starting (or restarting) syslogd. FIFOs are sometimes used for debugging. Terminal or console send log messages to a terminal comparable to /dev/console. faraway machine ahead messages to yet another host through putting an at (@) signal earlier than the hostname. observe that messages aren't forwarded from the receiving host. listing of clients Use a comma-separated record of users to obtain messages (if the person is logged in). the foundation consumer is commonly included here. everybody logged on Specify an asterisk (*) to have everyone logged on notified using the wall command.

    Prefix a priority with ! to point out that the action should now not practice to this level and better. in a similar way prefix a precedence with = to point out that the guideline applies only to this stage or with != to point out that the guideline applies to all except this level. listing three indicates some examples, and the person page for syslog.conf has many more examples.

    checklist three. additional syslog.conf examples # Kernel messages are first, kept in the kernel # file, vital messages and higher ones additionally go # to an extra host and to the console # kern.* /var/adm/kernel kern.crit @log-server kern.crit /dev/console;kern.!err /var/adm/kernel-data # shop all mail messages except data priority in /var/log/mail. mail.*;mail.!=information /var/log/mail

    The syslogd command starts the syslogd daemon. It has a numver of alternate options, including -f to specify a special configuration file, and -a for further sockets to hearken to. The daemon responds to a number of alerts, including SIGHUP which causes it to reinitialize. See the person or info pages for extra details on operating and interacting with the syslogd daemon.

    listing 4 suggests one of the most messages that can be logged to /var/log/messages the usage of syslogd configuration parameters like those of list 2.

    list four. instance of messages logged in /var/log/messages root@attic4-sl42:~# tail -n 20 /var/log/messages Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274747] usb 1-1.1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=three Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274751] usb 1-1.1: Product: USB DISK 2.0 Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274755] usb 1-1.1: manufacturer: Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274759] usb 1-1.1: SerialNumber: 070B53DF11FC0170 Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.275036] usb-storage 1-1.1:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.275801] scsi host12: usb-storage 1-1.1:1.0 Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 1, gadget 12: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.2/usb1/1-1/1-1.1" Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 1, machine: 12 was now not an MTP equipment Nov 19 21:39:fifty eight attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1404.301570] scsi 12:0:0:0: Direct-access USB DISK 2.0 PMAP PQ: 0 ANSI: 4 Nov 19 21:39:fifty nine attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.651626] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] 30299520 512-byte logical blocks: (15.5 GB/14.four GiB) Nov 19 21:39:fifty nine attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.652236] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] Write give protection to is off Nov 19 21:40:00 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.678810] sdd: sdd1 Nov 19 21:40:00 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.683911] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] connected SCSI detachable disk Nov 19 21:forty two:36 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1562.844117] usb 1-1.1: reset high-velocity USB machine quantity 12 the use of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:42:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.044142] usb 1-1.1: reset excessive-pace USB machine number 12 the usage of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:forty two:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.245138] usb 1-1.1: reset excessive-velocity USB equipment quantity 12 the usage of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:42:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.619154] usb 1-1.1: reset excessive-pace USB gadget number 12 using ehci-pci Nov 19 21:42:38 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.919798] usb 1-1.1: USB disconnect, equipment quantity 12 Nov 19 21:forty two:38 attic4-sl42 kernel: <27>[ 1563.950967] udevd[3540]: inotify_add_watch(6, /dev/sdd, 10) failed: No such file or listing Nov 19 21:56:forty eight attic4-sl42 -- MARK -- The kernel log daemon - klogd

    In list 3 you saw some methods to configure kernel message logging. but how do boot-time kernel messages get logged earlier than a file device is even hooked up? The kernel shops messages in a hoop buffer in reminiscence. The klogd daemon methods these messages at once to a console, or a file reminiscent of /var/log/dmesg, or in the course of the syslog facility.

    observe that the example in record 2 logs all messages at warning degree or above in /var/log/syslog. In particular, this contains kernel messages.

    As with the syslogd command, the klogd command has a few alternatives. See the man or information pages for details. There isn't any configuration file for klogd.

    which you can also monitor messages from the kernel ring buffer the use of the dmesg command. The command also has alternatives to interact with the ring buffer, as an instance to examine and clear messages.

    Rotate and archive log information

    With the quantity of logging it's possible, you need to be capable of handle the dimension of log info. here's achieved the use of the logrotate command, which is continually run as a cron job. (See our tutorial, Automate system administration projects by using scheduling jobs, for extra information on cron jobs).

    The time-honored conception in the back of the logrotate command is that log info are periodically backed up and a new log is begun. a couple of generations of log are saved, and when a log a while to the final era, it can be archived. for example, it might possibly be mailed to an archival consumer.

    Use the /etc/logrotate.conf configuration file to specify how your log rotating and archiving should still happen. that you would be able to specify diverse frequencies, corresponding to each day, weekly, or month-to-month, for different log info, and you'll control the variety of generations to preserve and when or whether to mail copies to an archival consumer. record 5 shows a pattern /and so forth/logrotate.conf file.

    checklist 5. sample /and so forth/logrotate.conf # /etc/logrotate.conf # # logrotate is designed to ease administration of programs that generate massive # numbers of log information. It allows for computerized rotation, compression, removing, and # mailing of log data. every log file could be dealt with each day, weekly, monthly, or # when it grows too tremendous. # # logrotate is consistently run daily from root's crontab. # # For greater particulars, see "man logrotate". # rotate log files weekly: weekly # retain 4 weeks worth of backlogs: rotate four # create new (empty) log data after rotating ancient ones: create # uncomment if you are looking to use the date as a suffix of the circled file #dateext # uncomment this in case you desire your log files compressed: #compress # some applications installation log rotation suggestions in this directory: encompass /and so forth/logrotate.d # Rotate /var/log/wtmp: /var/log/wtmp missingok monthly create 0664 root utmp minsize 1M rotate 1 # Rotate /var/log/btmp: /var/log/btmp missingok monthly create 0600 root root rotate 1 # note that /var/log/lastlog is not rotated. this is intentional, and it would # not be. The lastlog file is a database, and is also a sparse file that takes # up an awful lot much less space on the force than it appears. # gadget-specific logs can be even be configured below:

    The logrotate.conf file has global alternatives at first. These are the default options if nothing more particular is specified somewhere else. in this example, log info are circled weekly, and 4 weeks value of backups are kept. as soon as a log file is turned around, a brand new one is automatically created in area of the historical one. notice that the logrotate.conf file may also encompass requirements from different info. right here, all the information in /and many others/logrotate.d are blanketed.

    This illustration also contains selected guidelines for /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp, which can be circled monthly. No error message is issued if the files are missing. a new file is created, and just one backup is maintained. entry to those files is also limited through surroundings permissions.

    notice: The info /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp list a success and unsuccessful login attempts, respectively. unlike most log info, these are not clear text data. You may check them using the ultimate or lastb commands. See the person pages for these instructions for details.

    in this instance, when a backup reaches the remaining technology, it's deleted because there is no specification of what else to do with it.

    that you can lower back up log files when they attain a specific dimension. you can additionally script instructions to run before or after the backup operation. record 6 shows a more complicated example.

    checklist 6. another logrotate configuration example /var/log/messages rotate 5 mail logsave@log-server size 100k postrotate /usr/bin/killall -HUP syslogd endscript

    In record 6, /var/log/messages is turned around after it reaches one hundred KB in size. five backup files are maintained, and when the oldest backup a long time out, it is mailed to logsave@log-server. The postrotate introduces a script that restarts the syslogd daemon after the rotation is finished, with the aid of sending it the HUP signal. The endscript statement is required to terminate the script and is additionally required if a prerotate script is present. See the logrotate man page for greater comprehensive tips.

    As with many such configuration files, some programs provided extra configuration, constantly in the listing etc/logrotate.d. record 7 indicates the data on my Slackware gadget.

    record 7. Configuration information for logrotate root@attic4-sl42:~# ls /and many others/logrot* /etc/logrotate.conf /and so forth/logrotate.d: consolekit mcelog mysql.orig ulogd wpa_supplicant httpd mysql syslog vsftpd root@attic4-sl42:~# cat /and many others/logrotate.d/httpd /var/log/httpd/*_log rotate 10 notifempty missingok measurement=5M compress delaycompress sharedscripts postrotate /and so forth/rc.d/rc.httpd restart endscript Scan log info for remarkable undertaking

    Log file entries are always time stamped and comprise the hostname of the reporting procedure, along with the manner name. checklist 8 suggests a couple of strains from /var/log/messages, containing entries from several courses.

    record eight. sample log file entries Nov 19 15:48:31 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 7.407406] EXT4-fs (sda6): re-established. Opts: (null) Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus three, device 3: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/three-2.1" Nov 19 15:forty eight:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: three, machine: three became now not an MTP machine Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus three, gadget 4: "/sys/gadgets/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/3-2.4" Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: three, machine: four became no longer an MTP machine Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 1, machine four: "/sys/instruments/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.2/usb1/1-1/1-1.1" Nov 19 15:forty eight:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 1, gadget: 4 was no longer an MTP device Nov 19 15:forty eight:36 attic4-sl42 root: /and many others/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/ifconfig lo Nov 19 15:48:36 attic4-sl42 root: /and so forth/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/route add -web netmask lo Nov 19 15:forty eight:36 attic4-sl42 root: /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/dhcpcd -t 10 eth0 Nov 19 15:forty eight:36 attic4-sl42 dhcpcd[1112]: eth0: including handle fe80::4c2a:3f48:e0f7:cc90 Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 sshd[1255]: Server listening on port 22. Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 sshd[1255]: Server listening on :: port 22. Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1262]: ntpd 4.2.8p8@1.3265-o Fri Jun three 23:08: 22 UTC 2016 (1): beginningNov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1262]: Command line: /usr/sbin/ntpd -g -p /var /run/ Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: proto: precision = 0.230 usec (-22) Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention and drop on 0 v6wildcard [::]:12 three Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: hear and drop on 1 v4wildcard Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention normally on 2 lo Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention continually on three eth0 Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: hear always on four lo [::1]:123 Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: failed to init interface for address fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2ap.c2 Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: Listening on routing socket on fd #21 for interface updates Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 acpid: starting off with netlink and the enter layer Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 acpid: 1 rule loaded Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 acpid: waiting for routine: event logging is off Nov 19 15:forty eight:42 attic4-sl42 dbus[1226]: [system] Activating provider name='org.freedesktop.PolicyKit1' (using servicehelper) Nov 19 15:48:forty two attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: failed to init interface for address fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2a%2

    The ultimate line of listing 8 shows a failure from the network Time Protocol daemon (ntpd). during this case, it didn't initialize an IP V6 interface because this system uses most effective IP V4 connections.

    you could scan log files the usage of a pager, such as much less, or search for selected entries (corresponding to ntpd messages from host attic4-sl42) the use of grep as proven in record 9.

    checklist 9. Scanning log files root@attic4-sl42:~# grep "attic4-sl42 ntpd" /var/log/messages | tail -9Nov 19 21:17:12 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1131]: Command line: /usr/sbin/ntpd -g -p /var/run/ Nov 19 21:17:12 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: proto: precision = 0.220 usec (-22) Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention and drop on 0 v6wildcard [::]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention and drop on 1 v4wildcard Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention always on 2 lo Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention at all times on three eth0 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: listen invariably on 4 lo [::1]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: hear normally on 5 eth0 [fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2a%2]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: Listening on routing socket on fd #22 for interface updates computer screen log files

    from time to time you may wish to video display log files for hobbies. as an example, you might be attempting to trap an occasionally happening experience on the time it happens. In such a case, you can use the tail command with the -f option to observe the log file. checklist 10 shows an instance.

    checklist 10. Following log file updates root@attic4-sl42:~# tail -n 1 -f /var/log/messages Nov 20 09:24:58 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43705.563240] sd 15:0:0:0: [sdd] connected SCSI removable disk Nov 20 09:26:23 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43790.820125] usb 3-2.4: USB disconnect, machine quantity fiveNov 20 09:27:13 attic4-sl42 sshd[6059]: accepted password for ian from 192.168.1.forty port 58184 ssh2 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.890670] usb 3-2.4: new low-velocity USB equipment quantity 6 the usage of ohci-pci Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989492] usb three-2.4: New USB gadget discovered, idVendor=046d, idProduct=c50e Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989501] usb 3-2.four: New USB equipment strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989506] usb three-2.four: Product: USB Receiver Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989509] usb three-2.4: brand: Logitech Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43956.003175] input: Logitech USB Receiver as /instruments/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/3-2/three-2.4/3-2.4:1.0/0003:046D:C50E.0004/input/input19 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43956.054049] hid-generic 0003:046D:C50E.0004: input,hidraw1: USB HID v1.eleven Mouse [Logitech USB Receiver] on usb-0000:00:12.0-2.four/input0 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus three, machine 6: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/three-2.4" Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 3, gadget: 6 became now not an MTP device music down issues reported in log data

    in case you locate issues in log files, word the time, the host identify, and the system that generated the issue. If the message identifies the problem specifically sufficient that you can resolve it, you are carried out. If now not, you may need to replace syslog.conf to specify that extra messages be logged for the applicable facility. as an instance, you might deserve to demonstrate informational messages instead of warning messages and even debug-level messages. Your application may have additional amenities so that you can use.

    ultimately, if you need to put marks within the log file to support you understand what messages have been logged at what stage of your debugging activity, that you could use the logger command from a terminal window or shell script to send a message of your option to the syslogd daemon for logging in accordance with the rules in syslog.conf.

    the usage of rsyslogd

    Rsyslog is the self-described rocket-quickly equipment for log processing. it is upwards compatible from syslog in the experience that it may process configurations appropriate with syslog and additionally handle the syslog name to log suggestions. It additionally offers a number of enhancements that aren't backwards compatible. In certain, it supports extra logging protocols, and it might probably log to databases, corresponding to MySQL or PostgreSQL, in addition to info. you can filter any a part of a syslog message and can completely configure the output layout.

    The ordinary man and data pages supply primary assistance about rsyslog. despite the fact, there is considerably extra documentation supplied in the HTML format in the doc listing of your device. You could need to installation the rsyslog-doc equipment if it turned into no longer installed to your gadget. the basis of the HTML tree is at /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-eight.24.0/html/index.html. The area may also range in your system.

    The rsyslog software runs as a daemon, akin to syslogd. The configuration file defaults to rsyslog.conf.

    list 11. An rsyslog.conf configuration file [ian@attic4-ce7 ~]$ cat /etc/rsyslog.conf # rsyslog configuration file # For greater assistance see /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-*/rsyslog_conf.html # in case you adventure complications, see #### MODULES #### # The imjournal module bellow is now used as a message supply as an alternative of imuxsock. $ModLoad imuxsock # gives support for native system logging (e.g. by means of logger command) $ModLoad imjournal # gives entry to the systemd journal #$ModLoad imklog # reads kernel messages (the equal are read from journald) #$ModLoad immark # offers --MARK-- message skill # provides UDP syslog reception #$ModLoad imudp #$UDPServerRun 514 # gives TCP syslog reception #$ModLoad imtcp #$InputTCPServerRun 514 #### international DIRECTIVES #### # the place to vicinity auxiliary data $WorkDirectory /var/lib/rsyslog # Use default timestamp format $ActionFileDefaultTemplate RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat # File syncing potential is disabled through default. This function is continually now not required, # no longer positive and an excessive efficiency hit #$ActionFileEnableSync on # include all config files in /etc/rsyslog.d/ $IncludeConfig /etc/rsyslog.d/*.conf # flip off message reception by means of local log socket; # native messages are retrieved via imjournal now. $OmitLocalLogging on # File to store the place in the journal $IMJournalStateFile imjournal.state #### rules #### # Log all kernel messages to the console. # Logging lots else clutters up the screen. #kern.* /dev/console # Log anything else (except mail) of degree data or better. # don't log deepest authentication messages! *.data;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none /var/log/messages # The authpriv file has restricted entry. authpriv.* /var/log/relaxed # Log all of the mail messages in one vicinity. mail.* -/var/log/maillog # Log cron stuff cron.* /var/log/cron # every person gets emergency messages *.emerg :omusrmsg:* # keep news mistakes of degree crit and better in a distinct file. uucp,information.crit /var/log/spooler # save boot messages additionally to boot.log local7.* /var/log/boot.log # ### begin forwarding rule ### # The statement between the begin ... conclusion define a SINGLE forwarding # rule. They belong collectively, don't split them. if you create dissimilar # forwarding rules, replica the entire block! # remote Logging (we use TCP for authentic birth) # # An on-disk queue is created for this motion. If the far off host is # down, messages are spooled to disk and despatched when it's up once again. #$ActionQueueFileName fwdRule1 # unique name prefix for spool information #$ActionQueueMaxDiskSpace 1g # 1gb space restrict (use as lots as possible) #$ActionQueueSaveOnShutdown on # retailer messages to disk on shutdown #$ActionQueueType LinkedList # run asynchronously #$ActionResumeRetryCount -1 # countless retries if host is down # faraway host is: name/ip:port, e.g., port not obligatory #*.* @@far off-host:514 # ### conclusion of the forwarding rule ###

    you are going to respect ordinary syslog.conf entries in the middle of the file, surrounded through extra things that the rsyslog facility understands. See the man or info pages or the HTML documentation for more details.

    you can use logrotate with information created through rsyslogd, although SQL databases may additionally require scripting or different tools. in a similar way, the logger command nonetheless works to area your personal mark within the log.

    the usage of the systemd journal carrier

    The systemd journal carrier examples in this part come from Fedora 26.

    The systemd-journald application is a system service daemon that collects and retailers logging records. It creates and maintains structured, listed journals in accordance with logging assistance it's bought from the standard syslog sources in addition to structured log messages the use of a native journal API.

    The typical /dev/log socket is a link to /run/systemd/journal/dev-log as proven in listing 12.

    listing 12. The dev/log and /run/systemd/journal/dev-log sockets [root@atticf26 ~]# ls -l /dev/log lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 28 Nov 20 23:forty three /dev/log -> /run/systemd/journal/dev-log [root@atticf26 ~]# ls -l /run/systemd/journal/dev-log srw-rw-rw-. 1 root root 0 Nov 20 23:43 /run/systemd/journal/dev-log

    The systemd-journald daemon listens on sockets and different file equipment entities, including /dev/kmsg, /dev/log, /run/systemd/journal/dev-log, /run/systemd/journal/socket, and /run/systemd/journal/stdout. it can also listen for audit pursuits the usage of netlink, which transfers kernel tips to person area the usage of sockets.

    Most log statistics is textual, however binary information is allowed, theoretically up to 2^64-1 bytes in dimension. The journal retailers log data in /run/log/journal/ with the aid of default. The /run/ file equipment is risky, so log facts is misplaced when the gadget reboots. To make the records persistent, you create /var/log/journal/ and systemd-journald will then shop the records there.

    As with other logging techniques, there's a configuration file. by way of default, it's /and many others/systemd/journald.conf. Many alternatives are compiled in with the aid of default, so lots of the alternatives within the configuration file are at the beginning commented out as shown in list 13. Uncomment those you wish to change. As common additional configuration info may also be located within the journald.conf.d directory. programs should install their journal configuration assistance in /usr/lib/systemd/*.conf.d/.

    listing 13. initial /etc/systemd/journald.conf illustration # This file is a part of systemd. # # systemd is free software; that you can redistribute it and/or alter it # below the terms of the GNU Lesser universal Public License as posted by # the Free application groundwork; either version 2.1 of the License, or # (at your choice) any later version. # # Entries in this file exhibit the bring together time defaults. # which you could change settings by using enhancing this file. # Defaults can be restored through conveniently deleting this file. # # See journald.conf(5) for particulars. [Journal] #Storage=auto #Compress=yes #Seal=yes #SplitMode=uid #SyncIntervalSec=5m #RateLimitIntervalSec=30s #RateLimitBurst=one thousand #SystemMaxUse= #SystemKeepFree= #SystemMaxFileSize= #SystemMaxFiles=100 #RuntimeMaxUse= #RuntimeKeepFree= #RuntimeMaxFileSize= #RuntimeMaxFiles=one hundred #MaxRetentionSec= #MaxFileSec=1month #ForwardToSyslog=no #ForwardToKMsg=no #ForwardToConsole=no #ForwardToWall=yes #TTYPath=/dev/console #MaxLevelStore=debug #MaxLevelSyslog=debug #MaxLevelKMsg=notice #MaxLevelConsole=data #MaxLevelWall=emerg

    Use the man or info pages for journald.conf to study extra in regards to the configuration settings that are supported.

    Use the journalctl command to display logged advice. listing 14 shows how to screen the closing 10 strains of logged facts and then use the -f choice to observe, or invariably reveal, new lines as they're delivered. Use the --rotate choice to rotate journal files.

    record 14. the use of journalctl to display or observe log messages [root@atticf26 ~]# journalctl -n 10 -f -- Logs start at Mon 2007-07-09 22:14:00 EDT. -- Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] Activating by means of systemd: provider identify='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' unit='dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.carrier' requested by way of ':1.9' (uid=0 pid=650 comm="/usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon " label="system_u:system_r:NetworkManager_t:s0") Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 systemd[1]: starting network supervisor Script Dispatcher service... Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_START pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] effectively activated carrier 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 systemd[1]: all started network supervisor Script Dispatcher service. Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7121]: req:1 'connectivity-exchange': new request (5 scripts) Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7121]: req:1 'connectivity-change': delivery working ordered scripts... Nov 21 10:24:forty eight atticf26 gnome-software-carrier.desktop[4641]: 15:24:48:0034 Gs did not call gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: do not know the way to installation app in state queued Nov 21 10:24:fifty two atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port 67 interval 15 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:24:57 atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_STOP pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:25:07 atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port sixty seven interval 14 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:25:21 atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port 67 interval 17 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <warn> [1511277922.0280] dhcp4 (enp4s0): request timed out Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277922.0286] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state changed unknown -> timeout Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277922.0380] dhcp4 (enp4s0): canceled DHCP transaction, DHCP client pid 7110 Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277922.0381] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state changed timeout -> completed Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277922.0386] gadget (enp4s0): state alternate: ip-config -> failed (intent 'ip-config-unavailable', inner state 'managed') Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <warn> [1511277922.0393] device (enp4s0): Activation: failed for connection 'enp3s0' Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277922.0401] machine (enp4s0): state alternate: failed -> disconnected (purpose 'none', interior state 'managed') ... Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277997.7805] equipment (enp4s0): state exchange: ip-config -> deactivating (purpose 'person-requested', inside state 'managed') Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277997.7811] audit: op="equipment-disconnect" interface="enp4s0" ifindex=3 pid=7167 uid=a thousand result="success" Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277997.7817] gadget (enp4s0): state exchange: deactivating -> disconnected (reason 'person-requested', inner state 'managed') Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 gnome-software-carrier.desktop[4641]: 15:26:37:0783 Gs did not name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: have no idea a way to deploy app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Withdrawing tackle record for fe80::3fd7:76aa:e99d:da5d on enp4s0. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Leaving mDNS multicast group on interface enp4s0.IPv6 with address fe80::3fd7:76aa:e99d:da5d. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Interface enp4s0.IPv6 now not imperative for mDNS. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26[4641]: 15:26:37:0787 Gs failed to name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: don't know how to set up app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277997.7993] dhcp4 (enp4s0): canceled DHCP transaction, DHCP client pid 7179 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277997.7993] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state changed unknown -> completed Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=filter household=2 entries=99 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=nat household=2 entries=fifty nine Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=mangle household=2 entries=42 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=raw family unit=2 entries=30 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] Activating by way of systemd: carrier name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' unit='dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.carrier' requested by means of ':1.9' (uid=0 pid=650 comm="/usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon " label="system_u:system_r:NetworkManager_t:s0") Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 systemd[1]: beginning community manager Script Dispatcher provider... Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=filter family unit=10 entries=ninety Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=nat family=10 entries=54 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=mangle family=10 entries=forty one Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=raw family unit=10 entries=31 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] efficiently activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_START pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7223]: req:1 'down' [enp4s0]: new request (5 scripts) Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 systemd[1]: all started network manager Script Dispatcher service. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7223]: req:1 'down' [enp4s0]: start running ordered scripts... Nov 21 10:26:38 atticf26 gnome-utility-carrier.desktop[4641]: 15:26:38:0787 Gs did not name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: have no idea the way to installation app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:48 atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_STOP pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:28:35 atticf26 cupsd[4544]: REQUEST localhost - - "publish / HTTP/1.1" 200 182 Renew-Subscription a hit-ok

    Use the systemctl command to reveal assistance about, engage with, or control the daemon and connected devices. checklist 15 indicates an illustration.

    list 15. the usage of the systemctl command [root@atticf26 ~]# systemctl checklist-gadgets "*journal*" --no-pager UNIT LOAD active SUB DESCRIPTION abrt-journal-core.provider loaded lively working Creates ABRT complications fro systemd-journal-flush.carrier loaded energetic exited Flush Journal to Persiste systemd-journald.provider loaded lively working Journal carrier systemd-journald-audit.socket loaded energetic operating Journal Audit Socket systemd-journald-dev-log.socket loaded lively running Journal Socket (/dev/log) systemd-journald.socket loaded lively operating Journal Socket LOAD = reflects whether the unit definition turned into properly loaded. lively = The high-stage unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB. SUB = The low-level unit activation state, values rely on unit category. 6 loaded units listed. flow --all to peer loaded however inactive devices, too. To demonstrate all installed unit information use 'systemctl checklist-unit-information'. the usage of syslog-ng

    Syslog-ng describes itself as "an stronger log daemon, assisting a wide range of enter and output methods: syslog, unstructured text, queueing, SQL & NoSQL." It supports legacy and better syslog protocols and provides support for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and journald message formats. Syslog-ng supports extensive capabilities to filter input and layout output.

    once installed, there is simple suggestions within the man and data pages. despite the fact, you'll likely want to use "The syslog-ng Open supply edition Administrator book", which is attainable in both HTML and PDF formats. (See linked issues).

    The default configuration file is /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf. An instance is proven in record sixteen. additional configuration data may also be found within the /and so on/syslog-ng/conf.d listing.

    record 16. instance of syslog-ng.conf @edition:three.9 @encompass "scl.conf" # syslog-ng configuration file. # # This should behave pretty a good deal like the long-established syslog on RedHat. but # it could be configured a great deal smarter. # # See syslog-ng(8) and syslog-ng.conf(5) for extra information. # # be aware: it additionally sources further configuration information (*.conf) # located in /etc/syslog-ng/conf.d/ alternatives flush_lines (0); time_reopen (10); log_fifo_size (one thousand); chain_hostnames (off); use_dns (no); use_fqdn (no); create_dirs (no); keep_hostname (sure); ; supply s_sys equipment(); inner(); # udp(ip( port(514)); ; vacation spot d_cons file("/dev/console"); ; vacation spot d_mesg file("/var/log/messages"); ; vacation spot d_auth file("/var/log/secure"); ; destination d_mail file("/var/log/maillog" flush_lines(10)); ; vacation spot d_spol file("/var/log/spooler"); ; destination d_boot file("/var/log/boot.log"); ; vacation spot d_cron file("/var/log/cron"); ; vacation spot d_kern file("/var/log/kern"); ; destination d_mlal usertty("*"); ; filter f_kernel facility(kern); ; filter f_default level(information..emerg) and not (facility(mail) or facility(authpriv) or facility(cron)); ; filter f_auth facility(authpriv); ; filter f_mail facility(mail); ; filter f_emergency stage(emerg); ; filter f_news facility(uucp) or (facility(information) and level(crit..emerg)); ; filter f_boot facility(local7); ; filter f_cron facility(cron); ; #log supply(s_sys); filter(f_kernel); destination(d_cons); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_kernel); vacation spot(d_kern); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_default); destination(d_mesg); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_auth); vacation spot(d_auth); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_mail); destination(d_mail); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_emergency); vacation spot(d_mlal); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_news); vacation spot(d_spol); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_boot); vacation spot(d_boot); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_cron); destination(d_cron); ; # supply extra configuration files (.conf extension best) @consist of "/etc/syslog-ng/conf.d/*.conf" # vim:feet=syslog-ng:ai:si:ts=4:sw=four:et:

    You generally do not should run both the systemd journal and syslog-ng journalling. if you do wish to use each, you're going to need to make some configuration changes to both and then restart both. Search the web for latest guidelines on a way to do this.

    This concludes your introduction to logging facilities on Linux.

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    World AIDS Day: UN requires renewed dedication to make epidemic ‘a component of the previous’ | real questions with brain dumps

    1 December 2017 – the world will no longer obtain the Sustainable construction desires (SDGs) &#8211 which consist of the goal of ending AIDS by means of 2030 &#8211 without individuals achieving their appropriate to fitness, the United international locations observed Friday, marking World AIDS Day with a robust appeal for the total recognition of this primary right via each person, all over the place.

    &#8220The right to fitness is a basic human right &#8211 all and sundry has the appropriate to the enjoyment of the maximum available commonplace of physical and intellectual health, as enshrined within the international Covenant on financial, Social and Cultural Rights,&#8221 Michel Sidibé, govt Director of the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) spoke of in his message on the Day.

    certainly, the correct to fitness is linked to all the SDGs and &#8220is interrelated with a variety of different rights, together with the rights to sanitation, meals, respectable housing, fit working circumstances and a clear environment.&#8221

    He explained that it comprises: equal entry to health care; sufficient health-care infrastructure; respectful and non-discriminatory fitness-care features; and that healthcare ought to be medically applicable and of good high-quality.

    For the entire successes, AIDS isn't yet over. however via ensuring that all and sundry, all over accesses their correct to health, it can also be.Michel Sidibé, UNAIDS govt Director

    &#8220But the correct to health is more than that,&#8221 he persevered, asserting that with it, &#8220people's goals and guarantees will also be fulfilled.&#8221

    Mr. Sidibé mentioned probably the most marginalized and affected nevertheless face challenges in getting access to urgently-obligatory health and social capabilities, declaring &#8220we all have to continue to stand shoulder-to-shoulder with the people being left in the back of and demand that nobody is denied their human rights.&#8221

    &#8220For all of the successes, AIDS isn't yet over. however by using ensuring that every person, all over the place accesses their appropriate to fitness, it may also be,&#8221 he concluded.

    In his message for the Day, Secretary-prevalent António Guterres said that “the realm is smartly on its method to meeting the target of ending the AIDS epidemic via 2030,” noting that pretty much 21 million people dwelling with HIV now have access to medicine and this number may still grow to more than 30 million through 2020.

    With AIDS-related deaths and new HIV infections declining, there's wonderful hope that the area can bring on its promise, he brought.

    youngsters, some components of the response to HIV are lagging in the back of. “In some areas of the realm, difficult-gained successes are being reversed, with rising numbers of recent HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths,” Mr. Guterres warned, calling for “a renewed commitment to conclude what we've all started and to make the AIDS epidemic a aspect of the previous.”

    For her part, Audrey Azoulay, the Director-typical of the UN academic, Scientific and Cultural company (UNESCO), stressed the right to great training for all, because the two goals &#8211 fitness and schooling &#8211 go hand in hand. &#8220This linkage stands at the coronary heart of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable building and the UNAIDS 2016-2021 approach, she explained.

    As outlined in UNESCO's approach on training for health and well-Being: Contributing to the Sustainable construction dreams, fitness and education are jointly reinforcing: fit newbies be taught more advantageous, and better-knowledgeable freshmen are healthier.

    &#8220They are additionally at the same time elegant &#8211 with out the right to education we can not truly fulfil the correct to fitness,&#8221 Ms. Azoulay continued, stressing that in a world the place younger americans &#8211 exceptionally women and younger ladies &#8211 bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and AIDS, &#8220we all should recognize that finished sexuality training is primary to their correct to health, and to the fitness of all societies.&#8221

    picking out up that thread in her message, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, the executive Director of UN women, stated that in line with UNAIDS, each 4 minutes, three younger girls turn into infected with HIV.

    &#8220They are clearly not enjoying their appropriate to fitness, nor will they, except we're in a position to reverse the inequalities and discrimination that gas HIV spread. those whose fitness and future are at the moment least prioritized ought to become our focus, if we're to achieve the adjustments we are seeking,&#8221 she noted.

    As such, leaving no girl or woman at the back of in the HIV response skill making certain their significant participation and engagement in designing that response, enhancing entry to capabilities and worrying their right to fitness.

    &#8220To do this, we foster ladies's voices and management and assist their area at decision-making tables,&#8221 Ms. Mlambo-Ngcuka endured, including that in 2016, UN ladies supported networks of women living with HIV in 31 international locations to raise their engagement within the countrywide HIV responses. &#8220This World AIDS Day, UN women calls for a dedication to prioritize and reach the entire ladies and girls being left at the back of in the HIV response: each last woman and girl.&#8221

    threat of complacency

    in the meantime, in keeping with the UN little ones's Fund (UNICEF), in 2016, one hundred twenty,000 infants beneath age 14 died of AIDS-linked reasons whereas hourly, 18 have been newly contaminated.

    The 2017 UNICEF Statistical update on children and AIDS, launched Friday, projects that if existing tendencies persist, there should be three.5 million new adolescent HIV infections by 2030.

    &#8220It is unacceptable that we continue to peer so many little ones demise from AIDS and so little growth made to offer protection to adolescents from new HIV infections,&#8221 pointed out Dr. Chewe Luo, Chief of HIV for UNICEF.

    &#8220The AIDS epidemic isn't over; it is still a threat to the lives of babies and young people and greater can and will be finished to stay away from it,&#8221 he brought.

    A UNICEF evaluation of demographic traits and new HIV data exhibits that objectives set within the 2020 super-speedy-track framework developed in 2016 to end AIDS among infants, will not be performed.

    while noting that mom-to-newborn HIV transmissions have declined and two million new infections in infants have been averted, UNICEF warns that such progress have to now not result in complacency, saying that progress in preventing, trying out and treating HIV infections amongst kids has been unacceptably slow.

    &#8220To proceed at this slow price of development is to gamble with the lives of children and commit future generations to a preventable lifetime of HIV and AIDS,&#8221 Dr. Luo delivered. &#8220We have to act urgently with the intention to maintain any beneficial properties we have made during the past decade.&#8221

    To handle HIV-response gaps, UNICEF proposes utilising emerging innovations; scaling-up the response for toddlers; and strengthening governments' potential to assemble of complete, disaggregated trying out and medicine statistics.

    creative solutions have to be adopted to velocity up progress in preventing HIV an infection of little ones and ensuring those residing with HIV get the medicine they want.

    10 information on HIV/AIDS truth 1: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infects cells of the immune equipment

    an infection consequences in the revolutionary deterioration of the immune equipment, breaking down the physique's capacity to fend off some infections and other illnesses. AIDS (obtained immune deficiency syndrome) refers to the most advanced degrees of HIV an infection, described by using the occurrence of any of more than 20 opportunistic infections or related cancers. WHO/G. Hampton

    fact 2: HIV can be transmitted in a couple of techniques

    HIV will also be transmitted through:* unprotected sexual activity (vaginal or anal) or oral intercourse with an infected grownup;* transfusions of contaminated blood or blood items ortransplantation of contaminated tissue;* the sharing of contaminated injecting equipment and options (needles, syringes) or tattooing machine;* by using contaminated surgical equipment and other sharp devices;* the transmission between a mother and her baby all through pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. WHO/I. Ferdous

    reality three: There are a couple of easy methods to keep away from HIV transmission

    Key the right way to stay away from HIV transmission:* follow secure sexual behaviours comparable to using condoms;* get demonstrated and treated for sexually transmitted infections, together with HIV to evade onward transmission;* evade injecting drugs, or in case you do, all the time use sterile needles and syringes;* make certain that any blood or blood products that you simply might want are confirmed for HIV;* entry voluntary scientific male circumcision in case you live in a single of the 14 international locations where this intervention is promoted;* if in case you have HIV birth antiretroviral remedy as quickly as feasible to your own fitness and to evade HIV transmission to your sexual or drug the usage of companion or to your baby (if you're pregnant or breastfeeding);* use pre-publicity prophylaxis ahead of accomplishing high chance behaviour;demand post-publicity prophylaxis if there's the possibility that you've got been uncovered to HIV infection in each occupational and non-occupational settings. WHO/G. Hampton

    fact 4: 36.7 million people are living with HIV international.

    Globally, an estimated 36.7 million (34.0–39.eight million) individuals had been residing with HIV in 2015, and 1.8 million (1.5–2.0 million) of those were babies. The immense majority of individuals residing with HIV are in low- and middle-revenue countries. An estimated 2.1 million (1.8–2.four million) individuals had been newly contaminated with with HIV in 2015. An estimated 35 million people have died from HIV-related motives thus far, including 1.1 million (940 000–1.three million) in 2015. WHO/G. Hampton

    truth 5: combination antiretroviral therapy (artwork) prevents HIV from multiplying within the physique

    If the reproduction of HIV stops, then the physique's immune cells are in a position to are living longer and supply the physique with insurance plan from infections. constructive art consequences in a discount in viral load, the quantity of virus within the physique, vastly decreasing the possibility of transmitting the virus sexual companions. If the HIV effective companion in a couple is on helpful art, the chance of sexual transmission to the HIV-terrible companion will also be decreased through as tons as ninety six%. expanding insurance of HIV treatment contributes to HIV prevention efforts. WHO/G. Hampton

    reality 6: As of mid-2016, 18.2 million people were receiving artwork global

    of those, greater than sixteen million lived in low- and middle-earnings nations. In 2016, WHO launched the 2d version of the "Consolidated guidelines on using antiretroviral medicine for treating and fighting HIV infection.” These guidelines existing a couple of new options, together with the recommendation to supply lifelong paintings to all little ones, teens and adults, together with all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV, even with CD4 mobile count as soon as viable after prognosis. WHO has also improved previous strategies to present pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV (PrEP) to chosen americans at significant chance of buying HIV. option first-line medicine regimens are also advised. WHO/S. Volkov

    truth 7: HIV checking out can support to be sure remedy for americans in want

    entry to HIV trying out and drug treatments may still be dramatically accelerated so as to reach the aim of ending AIDS via 2030. HIV checking out reach continues to be constrained, as an estimated forty% of people with HIV or over 14 million americans stay undiagnosed and do not understand their infection status. who is recommending innovative HIV-self-trying out and associate notification approaches to increase HIV checking out services amongst undiagnosed people. WHO/S. Volkov

    reality 8: An estimated 1.8 million children reside with HIV

    in response to 2015 figures almost all these infants reside in sub-Saharan Africa and had been contaminated through transmission from their HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. close to 150 000 little ones (one hundred ten 000–190 000) grew to become newly infected with HIV in 2015. WHO/G. Hampton

    truth 9: removing of mom-to-newborn-transmission is fitting a truth

    access to preventive interventions continues to be restricted in many low- and core-earnings international locations. however development has been made in some areas comparable to prevention of mother-to-newborn transmission of HIV and maintaining mothers alive. In 2015, just about 8 out of 10 pregnant ladies dwelling with HIV – 1.1 million girls – bought antiretrovirals worldwide. In 2015, Cuba turned into the first nation declared by way of WHO as having eliminated mom-to-baby transmission of HIV and syphilis. In June 2016, 3 other international locations: Armenia, Belarus and Thailand were additionally validated for disposing of mom-to-infant HIV. WHO/A. Kari

    reality 10: HIV is the most useful risk ingredient for establishing active TB ailment

    In 2015, an estimated 1.2 million (eleven%) of the 10.4 million people who developed TB worldwide have been HIV-fine. within the equal 12 months about 390 000 deaths from tuberculosis came about amongst americans living with HIV. The WHO African vicinity accounted for round seventy five% of the estimated number of HIV-linked TB deaths. WHO/E. Hockstein

    ‹ ›

    woman denies man locked her up | real questions with brain dumps

    a lady found in the back of a padlocked door internal a new Jersey condo stated the boyfriend accused of retaining her there for years is &quot;a great man&quot; who has not ever abused her.

    Nancy Rodriguez Duran stated the kidnapping case towards 42-12 months-old Michael Mendez is a lie and that she requested him to padlock the bedroom door with her interior.

    chatting with newshounds before Mr Mendez seemed in court, Ms Duran observed her boyfriend changed into going out closing Thursday and she or he changed into involved about renovation workers coming into their Paterson, New Jersey, residence and seeing her in a nightgown.

    A state police highway gang unit searched the apartment for medication that day and found the forty four-year-ancient girl within the locked bedroom. in response to interviews and proof, investigators believe she turned into stored within the room for prolonged periods of time for the ultimate two years and perhaps up to 10 years, state police spokesman appearing Sergeant 1st classification Brian polite stated.

    Mr Mendez, who police say is a member of the Latin Kings street gang, was charged with kidnapping, false imprisonment and other counts, together with some involving the medicine officials spoke of they had been looking for in the first place.

    He pleaded now not responsible and is still held on $US1 million ($950,000) bail.

    Investigators talked about the lady was on occasion set free of the room when Mr Mendez was home.

    A neighbour observed Mr Mendez became a well-recognized face around the three-storey brick condominium complex. He talked about he often may be viewed backyard, sharpening a motor vehicle and listening to song.

    The neighbour said he noticed the woman a number of times in recent years, though it become rare. the person, who refused to give his identify on account of worries over security, spoke of he remembered seeing the girl get right into a motor vehicle someday within the last few years.

    Neighbours on either facet of Mr Mendez's proper-ground house pointed out they weren't conscious that one more person lived in the residence.

    "I did not see any woman," pointed out a man who identified himself most effective as buddy and opened his door best a number of inches as he spoke. "here is the first i'm listening to of it."

    A protection worker, who additionally declined to provide his name on account of issues over his safeguard, remembered the woman "cussing me out one time when i was doing my work".

    State police stated they found 4200 prescription capsules valued at $US100,000, 190 grams of marijuana valued at practically $US2000 and very nearly $US23,000 in cash internal the apartment.

    John drive wins inaugural NHRA 4-extensive Nationals | real questions with brain dumps

    John drive wrote an extra chapter in the NHRA history books these days by using winning the rain-delayed NHRA 4-broad Nationals at zMax Dragway in harmony, N.C.

    nowadays’s victory become force’s 2d this season for the 60-year historical funny car icon. The 14-time world champion also expanded his elements result in 89 points over his fellow humorous automobile rivals.

    “this is a little style of history,” drive pointed out. “This changed into special, like beating the dragsters at Bristol (2000 Winston Showdown). thanks to (zMAX Dragway owners) Bruton and Marcus Smith. They took the cash and spent it to make this take place. the toughest part was racing Ron Capps. he is all the time difficult and (Matt) Hagan, now that he has (co-crew chief) John Medlen there, will put the fear into you. my very own daughter additionally leaves nothing on the table. I’m happy with Ashley. She’s discovered the video game. This track is so decent that we took wing off of it. I don’t continually run huge pace, however it did this weekend.”


    photo courtesy of NHRA Communications

    John drive won the inaugural NHRA 4-vast Nationals funny motor vehicle race today at zMax Dragway in concord, N.C. The 14-motor vehicle funny motor vehicle champion had a successful run clocked at four.036 seconds, 316.23 mph in his Castrol GTX excessive Mileage Ford Mustang.

    drive is having his top of the line season on account that he suffered profession-threatening accidents in a mind-blowing crash in Sept. 2007 on the Texas Motorplex in Dallas. After having a lackluster season in 2009, force is back on properly this yr.

    in the four-broad funny car finale, drive blasted his Castrol GTX excessive Mileage Ford Mustang down the dragstrip in four.036 seconds and turned into clocked at 316.23 mph. He accomplished ahead of his daughter, Ashley drive Hood, longtime rival Ron Capps and second-year driver Matt Hagan.

    force’s win turned into his 128th profession victory and his first at zMAX Dragway. Runner-up drive Hood set a national velocity checklist at 316.38 mph in her Castrol GTX Mustang.

    In different NHRA competitors, Cory McClenathan (exact gas), Mike Edwards (seasoned stock) and Matt Smith (seasoned stock bike) have been additionally winners on the first NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing sequence adventure to featuring racing in four lanes as an alternative of the typical two.


    photograph courtesy of NHRA Communications

    Ron Capps, John force, Ashley drive Hood and Matt Hagan race four-large in the NHRA four-wide Nationals at zMax Dragway in harmony, N.C.

    within the desirable fuel dragster division, McClenathan grew to become the primary top fuel driver to win a four-extensive race when he defeated Doug Kalitta and semifinalists Antron Brown and Doug Herbert. With the victory, McClenathan regained the collection features lead. His successful time these days was clocked at 3.820 seconds, 319.60 mph in his FRAM dragster. It changed into his second victory this season and thirty third of his career.

    in the professional inventory division, Mike Edwards continued to dominate the class. today he scored his third victory of the season and twenty third usual through retaining off Jason Line, Greg Stanfield and Bob Yonke. Edwards entire in 6.596 at 210.05 in his Penhall/Interstate Batteries Pontiac GXP. It changed into his second victory at zMax Dragway and his first-ever in the four-large adventure.

    eventually, Matt Smith raced to his first seasoned stock motorbike victory of the season and 11th of his profession when he rode his Al-Anabi Buell to a 6.973 at 189.84 to finish in entrance of defending world champ Hector Arana, Steve Johnson and Michael Phillips.

    The NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing sequence is idle until April 9-eleven when the collection travels to Baytown, Texas for the O’Reilly NHRA Spring Nationals at Houston Raceway Park.

    final conclude order (1-16) for Full Throttle series categories at the inaugural NHRA four-huge Nationals at zMax Dragway. The race is the fourth of 23 routine in the NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing collection. (Race outcomes provided courtesy of NHRA Communications).

    precise gas:

    1. Cory McClenathan; 2. Doug Kalitta; 3. Antron Brown; four. Doug Herbert; 5. Larry Dixon; 6. Tony Schumacher; 7. Shawn Langdon; eight. Rhonda Hartman-Smith; 9. Doug Foley; 10. Bobby Lagana Jr.; 11. David Grubnic; 12. Brandon Bernstein; 13. Terry McMillen; 14. Morgan Lucas; 15. Pat Dakin; 16. Steve Torrence.

    humorous vehicle:

    1. John drive; 2. Ashley drive Hood; 3. Ron Capps; four. Matt Hagan; 5. Tim Wilkerson; 6. Cruz Pedregon; 7. Jack Beckman; 8. Paul Lee; 9. Tony Pedregon; 10 Melanie Troxel; eleven. Del Worsham; 12. Jeff Arend; 13. Bob Tasca III; 14. Bob Gilbertson; 15. Jeff Diehl; 16. Robert Hight.

    pro inventory:

    1. Mike Edwards; 2. Jason Line; three. Bob Yonke; 4. Greg Stanfield; 5. Rodger Brogdon; 6. Allen Johnson; 7. Rickie Jones; 8. John Nobile; 9. Warren Johnson; 10. Larry Morgan; 11. Shane grey; 12. Greg Anderson; 13. Jeg Coughlin; 14. Kurt Johnson; 15. Vinnie Deceglie; 16. Erica Enders.

    professional inventory bike:

    1. Matt Smith; 2. Hector Arana; three. Steve Johnson; four. Michael Phillips; 5. David Hope; 6. Junior Pippin; 7. LE Tonglet; eight. Mike Berry; 9. Eddie Krawiec ; 10. Andrew Hines; 11. Douglas Horne; 12. Karen Stoffer; 13. Angie Smith; 14. Craig Treble; 15. Jim Underdahl; sixteen. Shawn Gann.

    Monday’s remaining outcomes from the inaugural NHRA 4-broad Nationals at zMax Dragway @ harmony. The race is the fourth of 23 in the NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing series. (Race outcomes offered courtesy of NHRA Communications).

    desirable gasoline — Cory McClenathan, three.820 seconds, 319.60 mph def. Doug Kalitta, 3.825 seconds, 316.60 mph and Antron Brown, 3.862 seconds, 312.64 mph and Doug Herbert, 4.268 seconds, 193.seventy nine mph.

    funny automobile — John drive, Ford Mustang, four.036, 316.23 def. Ashley force Hood, Mustang, four.042, 316.38 and Ron Capps, stay clear of Charger, 4.088, 306.33 and Matt Hagan, Charger, 6.736, one hundred and five.27.

    professional inventory — Mike Edwards, Pontiac GXP, 6.596, 210.05 def. Jason Line, GXP, 6.632, 209.36 and Bob Yonke, GXP, 6.662, 207.ninety eight and Greg Stanfield, GXP, 12.558, sixty nine.69.

    pro stock bike — Matt Smith, Buell, 6.937, 189.84 def. Hector Arana, Buell, 7.000, 190.ninety two and Steve Johnson, Suzuki, 7.305, 157.32 and Michael Phillips, Suzuki, foul;

    competition Eliminator — Dan Fletcher, Chevy Cobalt, 7.787, a hundred and sixty.12 def. Allen Stanfield, Pontiac Grand Am, 8.658, a hundred and fifty five.15.

    accurate Dragster — Dave Connolly, 7.003, 178.54 def. Ray Miller, 9.044, ninety nine.46.

    right Sportsman — Ryan Ondrejko, Pontiac GTO, 6.869, 194.30 def. Marco Abruzzi, Chevy Camaro, sixty six.940, 196.ninety three.

    super inventory — Gene Daugherty, chevy Camaro, zero five, a hundred thirty.73 def. Emily Stott, 10.365, 126.ninety two.

    stock — Anthony Bertozzi, Chevy Camaro, 10.412, 124.96 def. Joe Santangelo, Camaro, 10.504, 119.98.

    tremendous Comp — Dan Northrop, Dragster, eight.958, 169.25 def. Tom Seemann, Chevy Beretta, eight.915, 177.fifty eight.

    super gasoline — Sherman Adcock Jr., Pontiac Trans Am, 9.900, 163.02 def. Tommy Turner, Chevy Corvette, 9.929, 169.19.

    tremendous highway — Eddie Brooks, Chevy Camaro, 10.895, 142.15, def. David Owens, Chevy S-10, Foul.

    ultimate round-by-circular outcomes from the inaugural NHRA four-extensive Nationals at zMax Dragway, the fourth of 23 movements in the NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing sequence. (Race consequences provided courtesy of NHRA Communications).

    suitable gas:

    circular ONE — Tony Schumacher, 3.810, 318.39 and Doug Kalitta, 4.022, 271.19 def. Doug Foley, 4.000, 282.ninety five and Pat Dakin, 9.415, 75.88; Antron Brown, three.858, 313.fifty eight and Doug Herbert, three.936, 304.12 def. David Grubnic, 5.962, 124.22 and Terry McMillen, 6.176, 111.13; Shawn Langdon, three.907, 307.72 and Larry Dixon, 4.302, 303.ninety eight def. Bobby Lagana Jr., 5.701, 132.15 and Steve Torrence, 9.529, 78.60; Cory McClenathan, 3.799, 319.14 and Rhonda Hartman-Smith, 4.630, 258.32 def. Brandon Bernstein, 6.609, 118.13 and Morgan Lucas, 7.964, 83.31;

    SEMIFINALS — Brown, three.840, 314.31 and Herbert, 3.851, 308.50 def. Dixon, 3.818, 317.forty two and Langdon, three.914, 308.eighty five; Kalitta, three.809, 317.57 and McClenathan, three.809, 318.77 def. Schumacher, three.842, 318.62 and Hartman-Smith, 4.403, 236.38;

    closing — McClenathan, 3.820, 319.60 def. Kalitta, three.825, 316.60, Brown, three.862, 312.64 and Herbert, four.268, 193.seventy nine.

    funny motor vehicle:

    round ONE — Ashley force Hood, Ford Mustang, 4.075, 294.31 and Cruz Pedregon, Toyota Solara, four.258, 297.eighty one def. Del Worsham, Solara, four.287, 293.86 and Bob Gilbertson, Chevy Monte Carlo, 4.931, 184.sixty seven; Jack Beckman, dodge Charger, 4.068, 312.06 and John force, Mustang, 4.096, 311.ninety nine def. Tony Pedregon, Chevy Impala, 4.123, 308.07 and Bob Tasca III, Mustang, 4.151, 304.25; Ron Capps, Charger, 4.032, 313.80 and Tim Wilkerson, Mustang, 4.079, 299.forty def. Melanie Troxel, Charger, 4.129, 305.49 and Jeff Diehl, Monte Carlo, 8.a hundred, 83.forty seven; Matt Hagan, Charger, 4.040, 312.42 and Paul Lee, Chevy Impala SS, 4.327, 296.50 def. Jeff Arend, Solara, no time and Robert Hight, Mustang, DQ;

    SEMIFINALS — drive Hood, 4.122, 288.64 and Hagan, four.106, 305.98 def. C. Pedregon, four.292, 299.60 and Lee, 7.224, 93.forty eight; drive, four.064, 313.29 and Capps, 4.064, 312.50 def. Wilkerson, 4.061, 306.26 and Beckman, 4.505, 199.73;

    ultimate — force, 4.036, 316.23 def. force Hood, 4.042, 316.38; Capps, 4.088, 306.33, and Hagan, 6.736, one hundred and five.27.

    seasoned stock:

    circular ONE — Greg Stanfield, Pontiac GXP, 6.616, 209.sixty nine and Rickie Jones, GXP, 6.863, 206.32 def. Greg Anderson, GXP, 7.608, 161.sixty nine and Kurt Johnson, Chevy Cobalt, 14.670, fifty nine.51; Allen Johnson, evade Avenger, 6.624, 209.14 and Jason Line, GXP, 6.622, 210.24 def. Larry Morgan, Ford Mustang, 6.744, 199.seventy nine and Erica Enders, Mustang, broke; Mike Edwards, GXP, 6.590, 210.64 and John Nobile, Mustang, 6.663, 207.85 def. Warren Johnson, GXP, 6.697, 208.36 and Vinnie Deceglie, Avenger, 35.117, 205.35; Bob Yonke, GXP, 6.603, 209.36 and Rodger Brogdon, GXP, 6.659, 208.eighty four def. Shane grey, GXP, 6.777, 207.27 and Jeg Coughlin, Cobalt, 6.913, 174.23;

    SEMIFINALS — Stanfield, 6.632, 208.ninety seven and Yonke, 6.637, 208.52 def. Brogdon, 6.661, 208.20 and Jones, 6.860, 206.sixteen; Edwards, 6.612, 209.72 and Line, 6.617, 209.56 def. A. Johnson, 23.909, forty eight.35 and Nobile, broke;

    ultimate — Edwards, 6.596, 210.05 def. Line, 6.632, 209.36; Yonke, 6.662, 207.ninety eight and Stanfield, 12.558, sixty nine.sixty nine.

    seasoned inventory motorcycle:

    circular ONE — Hector Arana, Buell, 6.897, 192.22 and David Hope, Buell, 7.040, 187.73 def. Karen Stoffer, Suzuki, 7.314, 167.30 and Jim Underdahl, Suzuki, broke; Steve Johnson, Suzuki, 7.041, 189.71 and Michael Phillips, Suzuki, 6.973, 194.52 def. Andrew Hines, Harley-Davidson, 7.090, 191.32 and Angie Smith, Buell, 7.955, 176.70; LE Tonglet, Buell, 7.037, 191.forty three and Mike Berry, Buell, 7.086, 188.15 def. Eddie Krawiec, Harley-Davidson, 6.944, 193.forty and Shawn Gann, Buell, broke; Matt Smith, Buell, 6.907, a hundred ninety.24 and Junior Pippin, Buell, 7.000, 190.14 def. Douglas Horne, Buell, 7.a hundred forty five, 185.05 and Craig Treble, Suzuki, 16.805, 30.32;

    SEMIFINALS — Phillips, 7.017, 192.60 and Johnson, 7.017, 186.30 def. Tonglet, 7.102, 189.ninety; M. Smith, 6.916, 192.00 and Arana, 6.908, 192.71 def. Hope, 7.040, 187.seventy six and Pippin, 7.026, 190.16;

    closing — M. Smith, 6.937, 189.84 def. Arana, 7.000, 190.92, Johnson, 7.305, 157.32 and Phillips, foul.

    aspect standings (exact 10) for NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing sequence classes following the inaugural NHRA four-extensive Nationals at zMax Dragway, the fourth of 23 routine in the NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing sequence. (factor standings supplied courtesy of NHRA Communications).

    right gas

    1. Cory McClenathan, 379; 2. Tony Schumacher, 327; three. Doug Kalitta, 326; four. Larry Dixon, 302; 5. Antron Brown, 273; 6. Shawn Langdon, 221; 7. Steve Torrence, 193; 8. Morgan Lucas, 173; 9. Brandon Bernstein, 168; 10. David Grubnic, 154.

    humorous car

    1. John force, 397; 2. Ron Capps, 308; three. Jack Beckman, 278; 4. Matt Hagan, 255; 5. Ashley drive Hood, 247; 6. Bob Tasca III, 236; 7. Tim Wilkerson, 230; eight. Robert Hight, 223; 9. Tony Pedregon, 212; 10. Del Worsham, 166.

    pro stock

    1. Mike Edwards, 484; 2. Jason Line, 303; three. Allen Johnson, 285; four. Greg Anderson, 256; 5. Greg Stanfield, 233; 6. Bob Yonke, 209; 7. Rodger Brogdon, 198; eight. Jeg Coughlin, 182; 9. Ron Krisher, 172; 10. Ronnie Humphrey, 147.

    seasoned inventory motorbike

    1. Hector Arana, a hundred seventy five; 2. (tie) Eddie Krawiec, a hundred and sixty; Matt Smith, 160; 4. Shawn Gann, 129; 5. Steve Johnson, 127; 6. Karen Stoffer, 115; 7. David Hope, a hundred and ten; eight. Craig Treble, 108; 9. Michael Phillips, 104; 10. Andrew Hines, ninety four.

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    once the 900 direct labor-hours are favourite for the

    Unformatted text preview: once the 900 direct labor-hours are ordinary for the Laguna model (June 2004), Anderson can compute the $187,726 can charge figure the use of standard costing. Anderson can use this guidance to manage the costs of the Laguna model job in addition to to bid on an identical jobs later in the year. In contrast, Anderson has to wait until the December 2004 12 months-conclusion to compute the $180,526 charge of the Laguna model the usage of actual costing. youngsters now not required, the following overview diagram summarizes Anderson Constructions job-costing equipment. oblique can charge POOL charge ALLOCATION BASE Direct substances charge OBJECT: RESIDENTIAL domestic DIRECT costs } } } Direct Manufacturing Labor indirect costs Direct expenses assembly support Direct Labor-Hours } four-19 (10 min.) Budgeted manufacturing overhead rate, allotted manufacturing overhead. 1. Budgeted manufacturing overhead rate = hours laptop Budgeted overhead ing manufactur Budgeted = hours-machine 000 , 190 000 , 850 , 2 $ = $15/desktop-hour 2. Manufacturing overhead allocated = exact machine-hours Budgeted manufacturing overhead price = 195,000 $15 = $2,925,000 3. when you consider that manufacturing overhead allocated is enhanced than the genuine manufacturing overhead fees, Waheed overallocated manufacturing overhead: Manufacturing overhead allocated $2,925,000 exact manufacturing overhead costs 2,910,000 Overallocated manufacturing overhead $ 15,000 four-7 four-20 (20-30 min.) Job costing, accounting for manufacturing overhead, budgeted fees. 1. a top level view of the product costing system is: cost OBJECT: PRODUCT cost ALLOCATION BASE DIRECT cost } } Machining branch Manufacturing Overhead computer-Hours Direct materials oblique cost POOL } Direct Manufacturing Labor oblique charges Direct costs } assembly branch Manufacturing Overhead Direct Manuf. Labor charge Budgeted manufacturing overhead divided by allocation base: Machining overhead 000 , 50 000 , 800 , 1 $ = $36 per laptop-hour assembly overhead: 000 , 000 , 2 $ 000 , 600 , 3 $ = one hundred eighty% of direct manuf. labor costs 2. Machining department, 2,000 hours $36 $72,000 meeting branch, one hundred eighty% $15,000 27,000 complete manufacturing overhead allotted to Job 494 $ninety nine,000 three. Machining assembly precise manufacturing overhead $2,a hundred,000 $ 3,700,000 Manufacturing overhead allotted, fifty five,000 $36 1,980,000 one hundred eighty% $2,200,000 3,960,000 Underallocated (Overallocated) $ one hundred twenty,000 $ (260,000 ) 4-8 four-21 (20-25 min.) Job costing, consulting enterprise. 1. Budgeted oblique-cost rate = $13,000,000 $5,000,000 = 260% of knowledgeable labor costs 2. at the budgeted revenues of $20,000,000, Taylors working salary of $2,000,000 equals 10% of revenues. Markup price = $20,000,000 $5,000,000 = four hundred% of direct skilled labor charges three. Budgeted costs Direct expenses: Director, $200 three $ 600 accomplice, $a hundred sixteen 1,600 affiliate, $50 40 2,000 Assistant, $30 160 four,800 $ 9,000 oblique expenses: Consulting aid, 260% $9,000 23,four hundred total fees $32,400 Bid expense to earn target operating profits-to-earnings margin of 10% can be calculated as...View Full document

    Evaluating initiatives with advantage/charge Ratio components.

    1 Evaluating tasks with improvement/charge Ratio formulation

    2 well-known B/C Ratio with PW: B/C = PW(merits of the proposed task) PW(complete fees of the proposed task) = PW(B) = PW(B) I + PW(O&M) I + PW(O&M) B = advantages of the proposed mission B = merits of the proposed task I = initial investment within the proposed undertaking I = preliminary investment in the proposed task O&M = working and maintenance costs of the proposed task the proposed mission If B/C  1 => venture is appropriate B/C project is unacceptable

    3 Modified B/C Ratio with PW: B/C = PW(B) - PW(O&M) I B = advantages of the proposed task B = advantages of the proposed undertaking I = initial investment in the proposed project I = initial funding in the proposed task O&M = working and protection charges of the proposed challenge the proposed challenge

    4 well-known B/C Ratio with AW: B/C = AW(merits of the proposed assignment) AW(complete charges of the proposed project) = AW(B) = AW(B) CR + AW(O&M) CR + AW(O&M) B = advantages of the proposed project B = merits of the proposed project CR = capital recuperation volume = I (A/P) - S(A/F) CR = capital healing quantity = I (A/P) - S(A/F) O&M = working and protection prices of the proposed mission the proposed challenge If B/C  1 => project is appropriate B/C project is unacceptable

    5 Modified B/C Ratio with AW: B/C = AW(B) - AW(O&M) CR CR B = merits of the proposed assignment CR = capital recovery volume = I (A/P) - S(A/F) O&M = operating and protection expenses of the proposed project the proposed assignment

    6 commonplace B/C Ratio with PW & Salvage cost B/C = PW(advantages of the proposed venture) PW(complete expenses of the proposed assignment) = PW(B) = PW(B) I - PW(S) + PW(O&M) I - PW(S) + PW(O&M) B = benefits of the proposed challenge B = benefits of the proposed assignment I = preliminary investment in the proposed undertaking I = preliminary funding in the proposed venture S = salvage value of investment S = salvage value of investment O&M = operating and renovation prices of the proposed undertaking the proposed assignment

    7 Modified B/C Ratio with PW & Salvage cost B/C = PW(B) - PW(O&M) I - PW(S) I - PW(S) B = benefits of the proposed undertaking B = advantages of the proposed assignment I = preliminary investment in the proposed mission I = preliminary funding in the proposed task S = salvage price of funding S = salvage cost of funding O&M = working and upkeep prices of the proposed challenge the proposed mission

    eight A metropolis is considering that extending the runways of its Municipal Airport so that commercial jets can use the ability. The land quintessential for the runway extension is at the moment farmland, which may also be bought for $350,000. development prices for the runway extension are projected to be $600,000, and the further annual renovation charges for the extension are estimated to be $22,500. If the runways are extended, a small terminal should be constructed at a cost of $250,000. The annual working and protection fees for the terminal are estimated at $75,000. eventually, the projected raise in flights would require the addition of two air traffic controllers, at an annual cost of $a hundred,000. Annual benefits of the runway extension have been estimated as follows: $325,000 apartment receipts from airways leasing area at the facility $sixty five,000 airport tax charged to passengers $50,000 comfort advantage for residents of Bugtussle $50,000 extra tourism greenbacks for Bugtussle

    9 answer I = land can charge + runway building charge + terminal construction can charge + terminal development charge = 350, , ,000 = 1,200,000 = 350, , ,000 = 1,200,000 B = employ + tax + comfort improvement + tourism = 325, , , ,000 = 490,000 = 325, , , ,000 = 490,000 O&M = runway O&M + terminal O&M + controller controller = 22, , ,000 = 197,500 = 22, , ,000 = 197,500

    10 popular B/C B/C = PW(B)/[I + PW(O&M)] B/C = 490,000 (P/A, 10%, 20)/[1,200, ,500 (P/A,10%,20)] = > 1 Modified B/C B/C = [PW(B) - PW(O&M]/ I B/C = [490,000 (P/A, 10%, 20) - 197,500 (P/A,10%,20)]/ 1,200,000 = > 1 B/C with PW

    11 B/C with AW widely wide-spread 000-190 B/C: B/C = AW(B)/[CR + AW(O&M)] B/C = 490,000/[1,200,000 (A/P,10%,20) + 197,500] = > 1 Modified B/C: B/C= [AW(B) - AW(O&M]/CR B/C = [490, ,500]/[1,200,000 (A/P,10%,20)] = > 1 = > 1

    12 Consistency of B/C methods n The magnitude of B/C price could be distinct n The conclusion from all methods are consistent; that is if standard B/C with PW > 1 then modified B/C with PW, typical B/C with AW, and modified B/C with AW should be > 1. And vice versa.

    13 n If PW(B) / [ I + PW(O&M)] > 1 => PW(B) > I + PW(O&M) => PW(B) - PW(O&M) > I => [PW(B) - PW(O&M)] / I > 1 n If PW(B) / [ I + PW(O&M)] > 1 => PW(B) > I + PW(O&M) => PW(B)(A/P) >[ I + PW(O&M)](A/P) => AW(B) > I(A/P) + AW(O&M) => AW(B) > I(A/P) - S(A/F) + AW(O&M) => AW(B) > CR + AW(O&M) => AW(B) / [CR + AW(O&M)] > 1

    14 Disbenefit within the B/C ratio n n Disbenefits - negative penalties to the public because of the implementation of a public- sector assignment. n n traditionally disbenefits is treated as poor advantages (i.e., subtract disbenefits from merits in the numerator of the B/C ratio). alternatively, the disbenefits may be treated as fees (i.e., add disbenefits to can charge within the denominator of the B/C ratio).

    15 familiar B/C with AW & Disbenefit B/C = AW(merits) - AW(disbenefits) AW(fees) = AW(B) - AW(D) = AW(B) - AW(D) CR + AW(O&M) CR + AW(O&M) B/C = AW(benefits) AW(costs) + AW(disbenefits) = AW(B) = AW(B) CR + AW(O&M) + AW(D) CR + AW(O&M) + AW(D)

    16 example by old instance, apart from the merits and fees, think that there are disbenefits associated with the runway extension mission. above all, the elevated noise stage from industrial jet traffic might be a significant nuisance to homeowners living along the method route to the Bugtussle Municipal Airport. The annual disbenefit to residents of Bugtussle led to through this "noise toxins" is estimated to be $one hundred,000. Given this additional info, reapply the common B/C ratio, with equal annual worth, to examine whether or no longer this disbenefit affects your recommendation on the desirability of this venture.

    17 Disbenefits in the reduction of merits. B/C = [AW(B) - AW(D)] / [CR + AW(O&M)] B/C = [490, ,000]/[$1,200,000 (A/P,10%,20) + 197,500] (A/P,10%,20) + 197,500] B/C = Disbenefits handled as additional cost B/C = AW(B)/[CR + AW(O&M) + AW(D)] B/C = 490,000 / [1,200,000 (A/P,10%,20) + 197, ,000] 197, ,000] B/C = 1.118

    18 Consistency n Let B = the equivalent annual price of challenge benefits challenge benefits n C = the equivalent annual value of challenge prices costs n n X = the equal annual price of a money flow (both an additional benefit or a reduced charge) now not protected in both B or C B/C = (B + X) / C > 1 => B + X > C => B > C - X => B/ (C - X) > 1 if C - X > 0

    19 illustration A challenge is being regarded to replace an getting older bridge. the new bridge may also be developed at a value of $300,000, and estimated annual renovation expenses are $10,000. The latest bridge has annual renovation charges of $18,500. The annual improvement of the brand new 4-lane bridge to motorists, due to the removal of the traffic bottleneck, has been estimated to be $25,000. behavior a benefit/charge analysis, using an interest fee of eight% and a look at length of 25 years, to verify whether the new bridge should still be constructed. Treating protection expenses saving as a decreased can charge: B / C = 25,000 / [300,000(A / P,8%,25) - (18, ,000)] B/C = Treating preservation fees saving as an expanded improvement: B/C = [25,000 + (18, ,000)]/[300,000(A/P,8%,25)] B/C = 1.192

    20 evaluation of together exclusive initiatives with the aid of B/C Ratios n Maximizes the B/C ratio doesn't guarantee that the most beneficial project is selected. n Inconsistent outcomes from typical B/C ratio and Modified ratio. (the commonplace B/C ratio might desire a unique mission than would the modified B/C ratio).

    21 example n the necessary investments, annual working and protection costs, and annual advantages for two collectively exclusive choice projects are shown below, which assignment should be selected? undertaking A mission B project A venture B n Capital funding a hundred and ten, ,000 i = 10% AnnualO&M cost 12,50045,000 N = 20 yrs Annual benefit 37,50080,000 usual B/C: Modified B/C: Modified B/C:

    22 Incremental B/C Ratio should still Be Used

    23 Three mutually unique choice public works initiatives are at the moment below consideration. each of the initiatives has a helpful lifetime of 50 years, and the hobby expense is 10 % per yr. Which, if any, of those projects should still be chosen? A B C A B C Capital investment 8,500,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 Annual O&M. expenses 750, , ,000 Salvage value 1,250,000 1,750,000 2,000,000 Annual improvement 2,one hundred fifty,000 2,265,000 2,500,000 instance

    24 PW(costs, A) = 8,500, ,000(P/A,10%,50) - 1,250,000(P/F,10%,50) = 15,925, ,250,000(P/F,10%,50) = 15,925,463 PW(prices, B) = 10,000, ,000(P/A,10%,50) - 1,750,000(P/F,10%,50) = 17,173, ,750,000(P/F,10%,50) = 17,173,333 PW(fees, C) = 12,000, ,000(P/A,10%,50) - 2,000,000(P/F,10%,50) = 18,923, ,000,000(P/F,10%,50) = 18,923,333 PW(advantage,A) = 2,150,000(P/A,10%,50) = 21,316,851 PW(improvement, B) = 2,265,000(P/A,10%,50) = 22,457,055 PW(advantage, C) = 2,750,000(P/A,10%,50) = 24,787,036 B/C(A) = 21,316,851/15,925,463 = > 1.0.A is acceptable  B/  C(B - A) = (22,457, ,316,851)/(17,173, ,925,463) = < project B not suited = < task B not suited  B/  C(C - A) = (24,787, ,316,851)/(18,923, ,925,463) = > assignment C is acceptable = > mission C is suitable resolution: recommend mission C

    25 example Two at the same time unique alternative public works tasks are beneath consideration. Their respective charges and advantages are blanketed within the desk below. undertaking I has an expected life of 35 years, and the effective life of project II has been estimated to be 25 years. If the interest cost is 9%, which, if either, of those projects should be selected? undertaking I task II Capital investment$750,000$625,000 Annual O&M expenses a hundred and twenty, ,000 Annual benefit 245, ,000 advantageous life of task (years)35 25

    26 AW(costs, I) = 750,000(A/P,9%,35) + 120,000 = a hundred ninety,977 = 190,977 AW(expenses, II) = 625,000(A/P,9%,25) + a hundred and ten,000 = 173,629 = 173,629 B/C(II) = 230,000/ 173,629 = > assignment II is suitable  B/  C(I - II) = (245, ,000)/(one hundred ninety, ,629) = < = < challenge I no longer perfect choose assignment II

    27 Criticisms and Shortcomings of the benefit/charge Ratio formulation n n often used as a device for after-the-reality justifications as opposed to for project contrast n n severe distributional inequities (i.e., one neighborhood reaps the benefits whereas one more incurs the expenses) might also not be accounted for in B/C stories n n Qualitative suggestions is frequently neglected in B/C reviews

    28 Homework web page 267 problem # eight, 12, 18

    promotion checklist for Correction Captain established

    The department of Citywide Administrative functions dependent a 339-identify list for Captain (Correction) on April 3, 2013. The listing is in line with examination 2501, which changed into held on March 24, 2012.

    read 000-190ers should still be aware that eligible lists change over their four-yr lifestyles as candidates are added, removed, reinstated, or rescored. The listing proven below is correct as of the date of institution however record standings can change because of appeals.

    Some ratings are prefixed through the letters v and d. The letter “v” designates a credit score given to an honorably discharged veteran who has served throughout time of conflict. The letter “d” designates a credit score given to an honorably discharged veteran who turned into disabled in fight.


      1 George Viola ninety two.250

      2 Shameeka A. Kearney d89.a hundred twenty five

      3 Cleo C. Tindal 88.875

      four Joanne R. Matos 88.750

      5 Darron G. Frederick 88.563

      6 Tisha E. Wilkins 88.125

      eight Alexander C. Baez 88.063

      9 Jermaine T. Bowery 88.000

     10 Olawamiri Otukoya 86.625

     12 Tonya A. Johnson 86.438

     13 Hao Yuan Liao v86.063

     14 Michael F. Kenny 86.000

     15 Jenay M. Combs 86.000

     16 Gennady M. Korets 85.750

     17 Ruisdael Olivero eighty five.625

     18 Rashida Smith 85.500

     19 Caryl R. Phillip eighty five.000

     22 Raymond M. Sanchez eighty four.500

     23 Charles A. Harris eighty three.938

     25 Rose A. Nelson 83.375

     26 Alvin B. Sledge 82.750

     27 Stephanie D. path 82.750

     30 Peaches S. Tranquada eighty two.438

     31 Lawanda Boyd v82.438

     32 William W. Payne eighty two.375

     34 Kelecia N. Tillery 81.875

     35 Jamar McMorris eighty one.750

     36 Juanne P. Clarke 81.625

     38 Wayne J. Prince eighty one.625

     39 Ada P. Jones Laborde eighty one.625

     forty Berletter Crawford 81.563

     41 Jean M. Louis eighty one.500

     forty two Howard I. Thompson eighty one.375

     forty three Melissa S. Suber 81.375

     44 Darwin S. Brathwaite 81.375

     forty five Yomaira L. Martinez eighty one.250

     46 Melinda L. Nieves eighty one.250

     forty seven Selene A. Germany-Inman eighty one.250

     49 Danielle Seth eighty one.a hundred twenty five

     50 Sandy okay. Arkhurst 81.063

     51 Tara M. Scott 81.063

     fifty two Shan-Tel S. Bolling 80.750

     fifty three Joseph J. Grima 80.625

     54 Jivel M. Antoine 80.625

     55 Simon A. Najah eighty.625

     56 Patrick J. Smith eighty.500

     57 Tasha O. Thornhill eighty.375

     58 Jason M. Bitetti 80.188

     59 William H. Curry d80.a hundred twenty five

     60 Errol M. Johnson 80.000

     sixty one Chanele A. Henry 79.875

     62 Lisa A. Thorne 79.875

     sixty three Leslie R. Roberts 79.875

     sixty four Nelva D. Wilmer seventy nine.875

     sixty five Carlos Blackwood d79.813

     67 Anthony Monastero 79.750

     sixty eight William N. Pelletier seventy nine.750

     sixty nine Jamal Q. Rigault seventy nine.750

     70 Tommy Cavallino 79.750

     71 Jeffery Baugh seventy nine.750

     72 Keisha C. Lemon seventy nine.688

     73 Thomas Fallon 79.625

     74 Vanessa C. Jenkins 79.625

     seventy six Matthew L. 1st viscount montgomery of alamein seventy nine.563

     seventy seven Khalid A. Muhammad 79.500

     seventy eight Dymita L. Harper seventy nine.438

     eighty Tamara D. charge seventy nine.375

     81 Solita Padmore seventy nine.250

     eighty two Santricia M. Bennett 79.250

     eighty three Krystal T. Pines 79.125

     eighty four Verkisha L. Wilson seventy nine.a hundred twenty five

     86 Jennifer Stewart-Small seventy nine.000

     87 William S. Taylor 78.875

     88 Charles L. Davis seventy eight.875

     89 Bennell Ellis 78.875

     ninety one Latanya C. Cooper seventy eight.875

     ninety two Nekesha C. Johnson seventy eight.875

     93 Lynn M. Demuria seventy eight.813

     94 Regina Warren 78.813

     95 Judemyr Glemaud seventy eight.750

     ninety six Michael k. Kim 78.750

     ninety seven Krystal C. Campbell 78.625

     ninety nine Fanny Vallejo seventy eight.500

    100 Shanika R. McMichael 78.500

    one hundred and one Cara V. Roberts 78.500

    102 Kimerly C. Mczick 78.500

    104 Jonathan O. Charles seventy eight.500

    one zero five Xiomara L. Maloney seventy eight.438

    107 Woodley J. Fenelon v78.375

    108 Shevonne Davis seventy eight.313

    109 Daniel P. Conte 78.250

    one hundred ten Charles E. Williams v78.250

    111 William V. Cherichetti seventy eight.250

    112 Charoya M. Stewart 78.250

    113 William T. Newlin seventy eight.250

    114 Dionne S. Pierre seventy eight.250

    one hundred fifteen Alicia L. Lockhart 78.250

    116 Jasmine S. Richardson seventy eight.188

    118 William C. Hille seventy eight.188

    119 Miriam L. Anderson hundred twenty five

    a hundred and twenty Tajiri L. Swindell seventy eight.a hundred twenty five

    121 Tiffany A. Kinloch 78.a hundred twenty five

    123 Sheniqua X. Smith seventy eight.000

    124 Robert H. Smith 78.000

    125 Bayyinah Peacock seventy seven.875

    126 Stephen J. Veraja seventy seven.875

    127 Kenneth Moorning seventy seven.875

    128 Timothy N. Cowen 77.750

    129 Charles Acosta v77.625

    one hundred thirty Tiffany S. Brathwaite seventy seven.625

    131 Wilie L. young 77.625

    132 Ametheieus Hamlet seventy seven.625

    133 Chris Kourouklis seventy seven.625

    134 Lashana M. Taylor 77.500

    one hundred thirty five Lee A. Mitchell 77.500

    136 Antonio J. Bravo seventy seven.438

    137 Salima A. Powell 77.375

    139 Aldene M. Felix 77.313

    a hundred and forty Ferdinand Torres 77.313

    141 Monon Y. Washington 77.313

    142 Dion D. Willis seventy seven.313

    143 Stephanie J. furnish 77.250

    144 Anthony J. Meli seventy seven.250

    a hundred forty five Erica R. Barretto 77.188

    146 Shakeema M. cook dinner 77.a hundred twenty five

    147 Cheryl Edwards 77.125

    148 Vincent J. Fuca seventy hundred twenty five

    149 Latonia N. Monroe 77.000

    a hundred and fifty Samantha R. Bryant 77.000

    151 Regginal J. Stokes seventy seven.000

    152 Kimberlyn L. Tunsil 77.000

    153 Lashauna E. Farrow seventy seven.000

    154 Adam R. Rollison 76.875

    a hundred and fifty five Kamona J. McDonald seventy six.875

    156 Sabreen S. Taylor seventy six.750

    157 Gustavo A. Kiste seventy six.750

    158 Desmond M. Myers v76.750

    159 Darren P. Kempen seventy six.750

    160 Lamont E. Banton 76.688

    162 Lashonda V. Davis seventy six.688

    163 Crystal M. Davis 76.625

    164 Juanita Walters seventy six.625

    a hundred sixty five Damaris L. Fennell 76.625

    166 Maritza Velazquez seventy six.500

    167 Samantha M. Marrow seventy six.500

    169 Diane C. Crawford seventy six.438

    170 Robert P. Venechanos 76.375

    171 Stevens A. Candice 76.375

    172 Robert A. Diaz 76.375

    173 Robert McDonald seventy six.313

    174 Vincent J. Siederman 76.313

    175 Tennille A. Pitts seventy six.250

    176 Shahid Mehmood 76.250

    177 Shacoya L. Barnes seventy six.250

    178 Valentine J. Springer seventy six.188

    179 Gennaro M. Squillaro 76.188

    a hundred and eighty Berton A. Williams 76.188

    181 Silbia Salcedo hundred twenty five

    182 Brice J. Williams seventy six.a hundred twenty five

    183 Julia Andujarsantiago 76.063

    184 Johnny C. Johnson seventy six.063

    185 Patrick Joseph 76.000

    186 Tracey A. Douet seventy six.000

    187 Kyreema R. McClain seventy six.000

    188 Danielle L. Sands 76.000

    189 Marcella Marshall seventy six.000

    one hundred ninety Shavonne R. Johnson 75.938

    191 Sheron A. Denny-Kingston seventy five.938

    192 Alicia D. Vaughn seventy five.875

    193 Chimere L. Spaulding seventy five.875

    194 Shirdai B. Simmons 75.875

    195 Willette R. Johnston seventy five.813

    197 Sonia M. Manzo seventy five.813

    198 Xiomara Quinones 75.750

    199 Goretti ok. Boyer 75.750

    200 Roxanne S. Brown 75.750

    201 Bridget k. Luby 75.750

    202 Shirley A. Blow 75.750

    204 Lameca T. Jenkins seventy five.688

    205 Rosemary Ellerbe seventy five.688

    206 Latisha S. Harrell 75.688

    207 Lissette Figueroa 75.625

    208 Julia N. Williams 75.625

    209 Christopher N. Abruzzo 75.625

    210 Shaunacey D. Wharton seventy five.625

    211 Shornett Erskine 75.563

    212 Geraldo Rivera seventy five.500

    213 Karla M. Colon seventy five.500

    214 John C. Tietjen seventy five.500

    215 Nicholas Purvis seventy five.438

    216 Jean B. Popotte 75.438

    217 Peter A. Othman 75.375

    219 Clarice L. Blackwell 75.375

    220 Paul H. Moodie v75.375

    221 Desiree Morales seventy five.375

    222 Resina A. Freeman 75.375

    223 Edward A. Horton seventy five.375

    224 Melinda Rammer 75.313

    225 Hazel A. Russell seventy five.313

    226 Oluyomibo Olaniyan seventy five.250

    227 Sharon J. Bolton 75.250

    228 Davina L. Simpson 75.250

    229 Ivonne M. Mounier-Ramos seventy five.188

    230 Elizabeth Sturdivant 75.188

    231 Zwannah J. Trahan 75.188

    232 Melissa Nieves seventy hundred twenty five

    233 Prudence N. Austin seventy five.125

    234 Sarita M. Chapple hundred twenty five

    236 Marlon A. Reid seventy hundred twenty five

    237 Erica T. Gainous 75.a hundred twenty five

    238 Oladipo k. Salako 75.063

    239 Lisa N. Steele seventy five.000

    240 Sardou Augustin seventy five.000

    241 Andre J. Middleton 75.000

    242 Dezlin O. Daniels seventy five.000

    243 Katrina A. Boyd 75.000

    244 Anthony Aponte 74.875

    245 Constance E. Hines 74.875

    246 Yvette S. Griffith 74.875

    247 Andrea D. Marsh 74.875

    249 James P. Kittrell seventy four.875

    250 Jonathan Chang seventy four.875

    251 Yetzirah Castro v74.875

    252 Gerron D. Wade seventy four.875

    253 Ronald J. Wilson seventy four.813

    254 Cassandra S. Stephens 74.750

    255 Flavio F. Colorado 74.750

    256 Christopher Johnson 74.750

    257 Nestor L. Vidal seventy four.688

    258 Tanya N. Williams seventy four.688

    259 Pamela Anderson 74.625

    260 John C. Rogers seventy four.500

    261 Nanette Gutierrez seventy four.500

    262 Jeffrey J. Richard 74.500

    263 Stella S. Bethea 74.500

    264 Tanya Armstrong seventy four.500

    265 Janet E. Smith seventy four.438

    266 Raashida B. Sultzer seventy four.438

    267 Duke Rutherford seventy four.438

    269 Erica Y. Mayweather seventy four.375

    270 Laurette D. Mendez 74.375

    272 Khadedra D. Mitchener 74.375

    274 Cynthia L. Bletsch seventy four.375

    275 Naheim R. Stokes seventy four.313

    276 Christina M. Whitaker seventy four.313

    278 Talisa M. Morrow seventy four.250

    279 Arlene A. Tash 74.250

    280 Deloris P. McDonald seventy four.188

    281 Solomon O. Kanu seventy four.188

    283 Frederick Nagel seventy four.125

    286 Akilah k. Biggs seventy four.063

    287 Delton G. Cumberbatch seventy four.063

    289 John R. Lundstrom 74.000

    291 Joan A. Perez-Sledge seventy four.000

    292 Christopher A. Cruz seventy four.000

    293 Michelle Gilliam seventy four.000

    294 Tremaine C. Charles seventy four.000

    295 Lakisha M. St Hill 73.938

    296 Chamicqua M. Thompson 73.938

    297 Bob A. Villette 73.938

    299 Nicholas D. Cranston 73.875

    300 Stephanie A. Wickham 73.875

    301 Brett D. Senior seventy three.875

    302 Charles Powell seventy three.875

    304 Milton R. Bonilla seventy three.875

    305 Ramel R. Edwards 73.813

    307 Khary T. Depradine 73.750

    308 Mario M. Seals Jr. 73.625

    310 Tiffany R. Chandler seventy three.625

    311 Cameau Destine 73.625

    312 Michelle Clarke 73.500

    313 Jennifer A. Hilton seventy three.500

    314 Frances Y. Goodman 73.500

    315 Roberto A. Fernandez 73.500

    316 Regina I. Reyes 73.500

    317 Ashlei L. Peterson seventy three.375

    318 Steve Hyppolite seventy three.375

    319 Melonee C. Murray 73.375

    320 Cyleen A. Hunter seventy three.375

    321 Monique L. Ward 73.313

    322 Jayson G. Andjelovic 73.250

    323 Christopher H. Chamberlain seventy three.250

    324 Shaquana Creswell seventy three.188

    325 Candace Stephenson 73.125

    326 Christina M. Maldonado seventy three.000

    327 Eugene R. Straker seventy three.000

    328 Kevin L. Roulston seventy two.938

    329 Kevin D. Watts 72.875

    330 Yardaan D. McPhail seventy two.875

    331 Latiqua S. Rouse 72.750

    334 Nina L. Simpson seventy two.625

    335 Emanuel powerful seventy two.375

    336 Angelo E. Lessey 72.250

    337 Dimitrius C. Richardson 72.125

    338 Lanice A. Chappelle seventy two.000

    339 Elijah S. Burns seventy one.625


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